How To Build Pizza Ovens Outdoor?

– Minimal setup – Easy to use – Heats up quickly – Large cooking area – Simple temperature controls – L-shaped heat source cooks pizza in minutes

How to build an outdoor pizza oven on concrete?

To get a general sense of your outdoor pizza oven’s footprint, lay out the bottom course of bricks on the concrete base. The pizza oven consists of two linked areas: the front arched opening and the back domed oven proper. The front opening will eventually have two double-stacked bricks side-by-side about 18 inches apart.

How to build a pizza oven in Minecraft?

Pizza Oven Build. 1 Step 1: Preparing the Base. Clear an area for the base of about 1,5 x 1,5 m. 2 Step 2: Casting the Slab. 3 Step 3: Building Up the Base Walls. 4 Step 4: Building Up Oven Walls and Floor. 5 Step 5: Continuing the Oven Walls. More items

How to design a pizza oven facade?

Some tips to keep in mind as you design your pizza oven facade: You only need refractory mortar and firebricks for the dome and floor of the oven. Elsewhere, you can use standard bricks and mortar. To create a “house” around your pizza oven dome, build it with concrete blocks, clad in brick and stone.

Is an outdoor pizza oven a good idea?

An outdoor pizza oven is a major undertaking that results in a beautiful backyard showpiece. Here are the basics of a DIY outdoor pizza oven. For many homeowners, a stone and masonry pizza oven is the pride and joy of a fabulous outdoor dining and entertainment area.

What is the best material to make a pizza oven?

The best refractory material for oven purposes is refractory clay, NOT refractory cement or conglomerates like Micromesh. Cement is much weaker and has much poorer thermal properties than clay.

Do outdoor pizza ovens have to be round?

Pizza ovens can be square or rectangular, with an arched roof, but it is less common. A domed pizza oven has better heat efficiency from evenly reflected heat and better hot air flow. This gives a hotter oven with less cool spots.

Do you need fire bricks for pizza oven?

“Do I Need to use Fire Bricks for a pizza oven?” While you don’t have to use fire bricks for a pizza oven, it is very highly recommended by professionals and consumers alike. Because fire bricks are better for retention of heat it means you dont have to keep stocking up the fire and can use less wood in the long term.

Can you use red bricks for a pizza oven?

If the bricks are made of clay and are kiln fired (firebrick or red clay brick) they can be used for a pizza oven, but if they are concrete bricks you should stay away. Clay bricks can withstand the heat from a pizza oven, and concrete bricks can’t.

How many bricks do I need to build a pizza oven?

How Many Bricks Are Needed for a Pizza Oven? Depending on the size of your oven, you might need between 100 to 250 clay bricks and up to 25 concrete blocks. There’s no one-size-fits-all answer to this question because it depends on the dimensions of your design.

What kind of wood do you use for a pizza oven?

Hardwoods, which usually contain broad leaves as trees, are a better option than softwoods, which usually have needles and cones. One reason hardwoods are better for cooking in a pizza oven is because they are cleaner and last longer than softwoods. The best examples of hardwood are ash, beech, sycamore, birch and oak.

What else can you cook in a pizza oven?

What Foods Can Be Cooked in a Pizza Oven?

  • Roasted vegetables.
  • Baked or grilled fish.
  • Slow cooked meats.
  • Flamed ribeye steak.
  • Smoked and barbecued meats.
  • Jacket potatoes.
  • Freshly baked bread loaves.
  • Focaccia and flatbreads.
  • Do you need special concrete for a pizza oven?

    Depending on the location, you may need to start by laying a concrete foundation. Supports for your oven can be made of concrete, breeze blocks, house bricks, or even old railway sleepers, but they must be strong and level, as the oven is going to be heavy.

    Can you use concrete for pizza oven?

    Mix your concrete in a 1:2:4 ratio (cement/sand/aggregate) and use a spade to fill the mould. Use some scrap wood to level off the concrete and ensure that it’s flat so that your pizza oven is resting on a level base. Create the shape: once your base has dried, you can start creating the shape of your pizza oven.

    How do you make refractory cement for a pizza oven?

    DIY Heat-Resistant Mortar

    1. 1 part Portland cement.
    2. 3 parts sand.
    3. 1 part lime.
    4. 1 part fireclay.

    Why do pizza ovens have a dome?

    The dome shape is designed to efficiently absorb heat from a wood fire, and to evenly reflect stored heat, and heat from a live fire inside the oven, down to the cooking surface.

    How tall should a pizza oven chimney be?

    A lot of customers ask about the correct height for their brick oven chimney. Round Grove Products keeps nominal height at 108” or lower in order to ship nationwide without requiring an Over Size Load permit, but most sites require a chimney extension above 108” to create the proper airflow.

    Which is better dome or barrel pizza oven?

    I’ve written about this subject both here and on the Forno Bravo Forum. The major difference between a vault and a dome is efficiency: a vault oven is more efficient for bread, a dome more efficient for pizza. That does not mean you can’t bake bread in a pizza oven or pizza in a bread oven, however.

    How do you make a homemade pizza oven?

  • Oven Temperature and Preheating. As I said,these tabletop ovens are designed to quickly reach temperatures of 900°F and above.
  • Learn Your Oven Settings.
  • Mise en Place is Critical.
  • Consider Your Toppings.
  • Loading and Launching.
  • Pie Placement and Rotation.
  • Keep Pizza-Making Fun.
  • How to make a homemade pizza oven?

  • Grease a large bowl with cooking spray.
  • In another large bowl,add flour,salt,and oil.
  • Gently punch down dough,then divide in 2,and roll into balls.
  • On your work surface,gently flatten one ball of dough and roll with a rolling pin (or stretch with your hands) until about 12” in diameter (as thin as you
  • How to make outdoor fireplace with pizza oven?

    – Step 1: Make the plinth. Takes about 4 hours. – Step 2: Make the dome mould. Takes about 1 hour. – Step 3: The first oven layer. Takes about 2 hours, plus 4 hours drying. – Step 4: Cut the entrance. – Step 5: Build the brick opening. – Step 7: The final shell.

    How to Build an Outdoor Pizza Oven

    1. You’ll be able to enjoy the combined delights of pizza, being outside, and cooking over a wood fire for a truly unique experience that you’ll want to share with your family and friends once you’ve constructed your own outdoor pizza oven.
    2. Your backyard will be transformed into nothing short of a social hotspot.
    3. In the end, who could say no to the seduction of a quick-baked pizza infused with the recognizable tastes of smoked wood from oak, maple, ash, beech or birch?
    4. Consider including an outdoor pizza oven as an accessory to your backyard patio or as an addition to your outdoor kitchen.

    How Do Pizza Ovens Work?

    1. Wood-fired pizza is not only a novelty or an homage to a bygone era.
    2. Because of the narrow stone interior of the wood-fired oven, the heat is increased exponentially, reaching temperatures that significantly beyond those found in a standard home oven.
    3. One of the secrets to getting chewy pizza dough is to bake it at a high temperature for a short amount of time.
    4. Temperatures ranging from 750 to 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit for little more than a minute or two are common.
    5. Another secret to success is, of course, the delicious, rich flavor that comes from the wood smoke.
    6. The flavor is one that no domestic oven can replicate.

    Codes and Permits

    Check with your local permits agency to see if there are any building laws or zoning limitations that apply to the construction of an outdoor pizza oven in your area. For those who reside in a townhouse or other kind of property that is under the authority of a homeowner’s association (HOA), it is possible that you will need permission from the HOA board before starting with this project.

    Materials

    • Concrete that sets quickly
    • Medium-density fiberboard (MDF) panel measuring 4 feet by 4 feet with a melamine-faced surface and a standard thickness of 3/4 inch.
    • 10 gauge steel rebar mesh with a flush cut finish
    • Drywall screws that are 1 5/8-inch in length
    • Silicone caulk in a dark color (black or similar dark hue)
    • Mineral oil or paste wax as a release agent
    • decorative bricks as a release agent
    • Mortar, cardboard scraps, and other materials
    • Scrap pieces of MDF, OSB, or plywood, each 18 inches by 18 inches
    • scrap pieces of plywood, each 18 inches by 18 inches
    • Sand weighing 75 pounds
    • A plastic sheeting material
    • Metal duct pipe with a 6-inch diameter and a 2-foot length

    Build the Bottom of the Mold for the Base

    1. Because an outdoor pizza oven is essentially a wood fire that has been controlled, you will need a sturdy, fireproof foundation.
    2. A rough concrete slab cast specifically for this purpose provides the greatest amount of flexibility in terms of size and appearance.
    3. While concrete pavers can be used as a base, a rough concrete slab cast specifically for this purpose gives you the greatest amount of flexibility in terms of size and appearance.
    4. As much as feasible, the slab should be cast near to where the pizza oven will eventually be installed.
    5. Mold made of melamine-faced MDF is constructed by cutting a big piece for the bottom of the mold, followed by four side pieces.
    6. (Optional) Cut the bottom piece to whichever size you choose, or to 36 inches by 36 inches if you like.

    Cut the mesh to a 35-inch-by-35-inch size with snips or a hacksaw, depending on your preference.

    Build the Sidewalls for the Base Mold

    1. Rip another piece of MDF wood into strips that are 2 3/4 inches wide and 36 inches long using a circular saw to save time.
    2. These sidewalls should be attached to the sides of the concrete mold bottom with the 1 5/8-inch drywall screws that were provided.
    3. Inject the silicone into the mold at all 90-degree angles and smooth it out with your finger to finish it.
    4. After the caulk has been allowed to set, apply the release agent to the mold.

    Pour the Concrete for the Mold

    Pour the concrete into the mold in a 1-inch-thick layer once it has been well mixed.Place the mesh on top of the concrete, and then finish pouring the concrete to the top.In order to settle the concrete, hammer the sides of the mold with the mallet several times.

    1. Allow for a minimum of two full days of curing.
    2. In order to keep the concrete from cracking, sprinkle it several times a day with the spray bottle filled with water.

    Remove the Base From the Mold

    After hardening, gently remove the side form pieces from the mold. Turn the slab upside-down and carefully remove the bottom form with help.

    Dry-Fit the Lower Bricks

    Lay up the lowest course of bricks on the concrete foundation of your outdoor pizza oven to obtain a basic idea of the size of the oven’s footprint.In the center of the pizza oven are two interconnected sections: the front arched aperture and the main domed oven in the rear.Over time, two double-stacked bricks will be placed about 18 inches apart on either side of the front doorway to create a frame.

    1. The arch is formed by five bricks, which lie on a foundation of double-stacked bricks.
    2. The rear dome will have a more organic shape.
    3. Begin at the far end of the archway, at the rear.

    Form a near-circle around the arch such that it touches both sides of it.Using the hammer and masonry chisel, break bricks in half as needed.

    Build the Front Arch Form

    Building the sides of the arch will be accomplished by mortaring together two stacks of two bricks.To construct the two side walls of the front arch, space the double-stacked bricks approximately 18 inches away from one another.After that, construct a shape for the arch.

    1. Arrange one of the scrap boards (18 inches by 18 inches) over the tops of those piles, on its edge.
    2. Draw an arch from the inner side of one wall to the inner side of the other wall using a carpenter’s pencil to represent the transition.
    3. Remove the first board and place the second board below it.

    The jigsaw may be used to cut out both arches at the same time.

    Build the Front Arch

    The two arch forms should be spaced about 3 inches apart from each other between the side walls of the room.A stack of bricks is used to support the arch forms beneath them.Five bricks should be mortared together over the top of the arch shape.

    1. One of the five bricks must be placed in the middle of the structure in order to serve as a keystone.
    2. Each side of the arch should be mortared to the side walls.
    3. Allow for complete drying of the arch before removing the arch form.

    Create the Form for the Oven’s Rear Dome

    Once you have achieved a satisfactory dome footprint, mortar the bottom course directly to the concrete base using a mortar gun.After the course has been allowed to cure completely, construct a dome form by piling sand on top of one another.Mix the sand in the mixing bowl with a little water to wet it and make it more adhere to the other pieces.

    1. Transfer the sand to the middle of the bricks using your hands only.
    2. Build the sand up to the point where it forms a half-sphere.
    3. Plastic covering should be used to completely enclose the sand dome.

    Add the Brick to the Oven’s Rear Dome

    Over the sand dome, there is a brick layer. Each course is mortared onto the one below it. Additionally, mortar between nearby brickwork. As you progress upward in the course, freely chop blocks in half or quarters to get a more precise fit. When you reach a circle with a diameter of 6 inches at the very top of the dome, stop adding brick.

    Create the Oven’s Chimney

    Incorporate the metal duct into the aperture at the top of the dome. Make certain that it does not reach any farther down than the inside wall of the dome’s topmost chamber. If the duct were to be extended farther down, it may interfere with the pizza-making process and perhaps cause the smoke to not be drawn out correctly. The conduit should be mortared in situ.

    Mortar Over the Oven’s Bricks

    Preparing a significant amount of mortar and spreading it on the top of the pizza oven is a good idea. Smooth the mortar down with a trowel and shape it by hand to make it seem even better. The rounded form of the pizza oven is due to the application of a final coat of mortar on top.

    Let Cure and Remove Supports

    Allow about three days for the oven to dry and cure completely. First, remove the arch form and the bricks that hold it in place. Then, reach back inside the pizza oven’s dome region and dig away the sand that is supporting the roof structure. Remove all of the sand and, in particular, all of the plastic sheeting with very caution.

    See also:  Where To Buy Gluten Free Pizza Crust?

    Complete Drying With a Small Fire

    Create a small wood fire before putting the pizza oven on to its highest setting to complete the drying process before baking the pizza. Keep the fire modest because if you heat the oven too quickly, you run the danger of shattering the mortar and bricks.

    Introduction: Pizza Oven Build

    We made the decision to install a brick and mortar pizza oven in an underutilized section of our yard in order to breathe new life into it. As it turned out, this was a fantastic family activity, and now that the oven has been constructed, pizza-making has become a regular family activity in our house.

    Step 1: Preparing the Base

    Make a clearing of 1.5 x 1.5 meters in size for the base.The base is a concrete slab with a thickness of 100 mm.The completed level of the slab should be approximately 50 mm above ground level in order to prevent ground water from running onto the slab, which will be used as a wood storage area later on.

    1. The base area should be flat and compacted to a level approximately 60 mm below natural ground level.
    2. Construct a box with internal dimensions of 1420 mm x 1370 mm from shutter board or 114 x 38 pine parts using these materials: (1420 mm is the width of the front end of the oven).
    3. Place the box on the leveled base area and secure it in place.

    We dumped a 40-kilogram bag of river sand into the box and crushed it with a hand stamper to make a solid foundation for the slab of concrete.

    Step 2: Casting the Slab

    Using a wheel barrow or a plastic ground sheet, mix two 40kg bags of ready-mix concrete together (mixing concrete by hand may be quite a workout for the inexperienced builder, so try combining only one bag at a time!).Cast the concrete straight onto the leveled area within the shutter box and smooth it out with a board to finish it off.(Our oven happens to be built above a manhole, which will remain accessible once the construction is completed; we boxed the manhole with polystyrene boards to allow for some mobility around the manhole.) Allow for a minimum of 24 hours of curing time before proceeding with the construction process.

    1. After three days, the shuttering may be taken down.

    Step 3: Building Up the Base Walls

    You are now ready to begin constructing the foundation walls.A low-cost face brick provided the exterior skin of the wall, while a clay stock brick served as the inside skin of the wall.A total of 118 whole face bricks and 22 half face bricks, as well as 90 whole clay stock bricks and 16 half bricks, were required for the base walls.

    1. We used around 6x 40 kilogram bags of ready-mixed concrete (there was a lot of waste owing to a lack of prior knowledge!).
    2. Build the two side walls nine courses high on the inner skin and ten courses high on the outer skin, starting with the inner skin.
    3. Using a mortar bed, install 13 precast concrete lintels with dimensions of 100 x 75 x 1200 mm across the inner skin of the building (you may need to trim the lintels to fit using an angle-grinder).

    Step 4: Building Up Oven Walls and Floor

    Begin constructing the outer skin of the oven’s side walls at this point.Build three courses of clay stock bricks for the exterior layer of the structure (these will be plastered over at the end).Bricks are laid in courses of four and a half each course.

    1. Pour a perlite mix (trade name PRATLIPERL) over the lintels before proceeding any further.
    2. This is a somewhat dry mix that serves as an insulating layer as well as a smooth basis for the oven floor.
    3. However, when squeezed into a compact lump, the mixture should retain its shape and not crumble or become too loose.

    With the use of a float, smooth out the mixture.Once the screed has been laid and smoothed, it should be covered with a plastic sheet and allowed to dry for at least 24 hours before continuing.It will disintegrate if it is allowed to dry out too rapidly.Not only is this perlite screed insulating, but it also contains very little cement and is capable of withstanding high temperatures (cement will crack under the heat of the fire).

    Step 5: Continuing the Oven Walls

    Face brick should be used to construct the inner skin of the oven walls.A normal face brick is roasted at around 1200°C and should be able to survive the high temperatures of the oven without the need of refractory bricks.We utilized a soldier course, which is equal to three stretcher courses in length and difficulty.

    1. Minimize the quantity of cement that is exposed to direct heat by making the joints between bricks as tiny as possible (approximately 5 mm).
    2. This will also allow you to reduce the amount of cement in the mortar mixture by half (do this for all oven-facing brickwork).
    3. Make a rough sketch of the barrel vault curve on a piece of hardboard on the ground (or another horizontal surface if the ground is obstructed by other objects!).

    Create a curved pattern with the bricks by touching the edges of the bricks that face the fire.Butt joints are employed to ensure that the cement does not crumble in the heat of the fire and fall into the oven during the baking process.Apex of the arch should not be higher than 500 mm in height, and the height of the oven should not be more than 500 mm.It will take too long for the oven to heat up and lose heat if the oven’s ceiling is raised to an excessive height.The rear of the oven should be constructed by cutting bricks as needed to accommodate the arch.Due to the fact that this specific oven was installed against a double brick retaining wall, we simply constructed a single skin on the rear of the appliance.

    A double-skin wall is required for a free-standing oven in order to provide adequate thermal mass to retain the heat generated by the appliance.

    Step 6: Building the Barrel Vault

    Preparing the formwork for the barrel’s arches requires cutting two pieces of hardboard that are identical in size and shape.Set them approximately 150 to 200 mm apart by screwing three or four pieces of equal length lumber between each of the two pieces of hardboard.It might be a good idea at this point to drill two finger holes in one of the boards in order to make it easier to remove the formwork later on.

    1. Make a grid of bricks for the first arch, which will be supported by the formwork, before starting with the mortar.
    2. Once you are sure that they are a good fit, you may put them in place using mortar.
    3. For the mortar, we used 40 kilogram bags of builders’ mix, but we only used half of the cement that was in the bag.

    Because the butt joints in the archway bricks provide sufficient support, the strength of the mortar is not very critical.It should be possible to remove the formwork as soon as the brickwork in the arch is completed because the arch is self-supporting.

    Step 7: Completing the Vault

    Move the formwork forward and construct the next arch so that it is directly adjacent to the first. Continue in this manner until you have constructed four arches. Construction of the vault’s exterior skin using clay stock bricks will then commence shortly after that.

    Step 8: Building the Doorway

    Stretcher course or soldier course should be used to construct the entryway walls.Make a plan for the formwork that will be used to create the arched entryway.The size of the door is critical; it must be functionally large enough without being too large, else heat would escape.

    1. The width should be around 500 mm, and the top of the arch should be approximately 270 mm.
    2. Formwork identical to that used for the oven vault should be constructed.

    Step 9: Finishing the Oven Floor

    The oven floor must be completed before the chimney and doorway can be completed so that the oven may be accessed while the floor is still easily reached.Screed the floor of the entryway using screed or plaster mix that is approximately 10 mm thick.Placing dry plaster sand inside the oven and smoothing it down to be level with the doorway screed will help to keep the oven cool.

    1. Lay the oven floor tiles loosely on top of the plaster sand bed to form a layer of insulation.
    2. However, because traditional terracotta tiles and refractory bricks were not available in our area, we chose contemporary unglazed terracotta tiles instead as a temporary and experimental alternative (300 x 300 x 8 mm).
    3. These were inexpensive (R89 for a package of 10) and we were able to quickly cut them to fit using an angle grinder.

    Using tile glue, the tiles in the entryway were installed to keep the arrangement solid, but the tiles within the oven were left loose to allow for thermal movement.

    Step 10: Continuing With Doorway and Chimney

    Half-face bricks laid over the formwork will be used to create an arch above the entryway.Begin erecting the chimney behind the arched opening.The actual cross sectional area of the chimney flue is only around the size of a single brick, which is extremely small.

    1. It was a little difficult since the initial course of the chimney couldtilevered off the entryway walls and necessitated the use of some temporary support structures.
    2. The better the pull, the higher the chimney should be built, therefore go as high as you can reach or afford!
    3. We finished the front wall of the barrel, cutting bricks to suit the arch as we went to ensure a proper fit.

    For example, we only constructed a single-skin brick wall at the front, which allows for rapid heat transfer; a double-skin wall would be preferable in this case).

    Step 11: Finishing Touches

    The outside was covered with perlite plaster (which was the same material used for the oven floor screed) in order to insulate it.Because the perlite mixture is quite dry and has a tendency to fall off if not applied correctly, we patted it on by hand, which took some practice.Instead of using the thermal mass of the bricks to radiate heat into the oven, it is preferred to insulate the outside of the oven in order to prevent the heat from leaving.

    1. Because the perlite plaster was not very tidy, we smoothed it over with normal plaster to make it seem better.
    2. We were particularly pleased with the appearance of the oven before we plastered it, so we chose to complete it with brick tiles over the plaster, with red mosaic tiles on the vertical sides of the oven.
    3. The stones on the front of the house were salvaged from a defunct water feature that was where the new oven currently sits, which was a’something ancient’.

    You are free to adorn the outside in any way that you see fit.We constructed wooden doors for the fire wood storage area beneath the oven out of old pallets that were attached to a wooden frame, and we also constructed a wooden door for the oven.The oven door is loose and only plugs into place in the brick entryway, which makes it difficult to use.Our oven door comes in handy while we’re making bread or roasting meat in the oven.

    Step 12: Firing Up!

    We created our first fire to see if the oven would hold up before we finished the rest of the dcor.A few cracks emerged, which we haven’t corrected yet, but aside from a few little streams of smoke, the oven is in perfect working order!The floor tiles were the most problematic, since they were damaged.

    1. Our initial assumption was that the fractures were caused by insufficient room for thermal expansion, so we replaced the shattered tiles with new ones that were cut smaller.
    2. However, after repeated attempts, we came to the conclusion that the thin tiles were just unable to withstand the heat.
    3. Our search for refractory tiles ended up leading us to Southway Refractories, which offered a decent pricing.

    Because they were just slightly thicker than the original tiles, we were able to replace the inner oven tiles without having to disturb the front door tiles, which remained firmly in place throughout the process.Because the tiles in the oven had become loose, it was rather simple to replace them – except that the chimney and doorway had already been constructed, making access a bit more difficult this time around!

    Step 13: The Final Product

    The next step is to make the pizza as flawless as possible.We’ve discovered that pizza is all about the bread, not the toppings, and that there’s nothing quite like sharing a freshly baked focaccia with family and friends.More information about building pizza ovens and preparing pizza may be found at this website.

    1. Visit our website for more information on our other projects and paraphernalia.
    2. Please feel free to download the plans, the Sketchup model, and a bill of materials from this page.

    2 People Made This Project!

    How to Build an Outdoor Pizza Oven

    Every editorial product is chosen on its own merits, while we may be compensated or earn an affiliate commission if you purchase something after clicking on one of our affiliate links. As of the time of writing, the ratings and pricing are correct, and all goods are in stock.

    An outdoor pizza oven is a major undertaking that results in a beautiful backyard showpiece. Here are the basics of a DIY outdoor pizza oven.

    Elizabeth Heath is the spokesperson for Family Handyman.For many homeowners, a stone and masonry pizza oven is the crowning achievement of a spectacular outdoor eating and entertainment space that they have created.In addition to a robust, authentic feel, an outdoor pizza oven made of bricks and natural stone may be constructed to look rustic or modern depending on the materials used.

    1. A permanently built outdoor pizza oven, similar to a barbeque grill or an outdoor kitchen, may serve as a year-round gathering spot for friends and family all year long.
    2. Investing in a qualified stonemason to construct a stone and masonry oven would almost certainly result in a stunning completed product.
    3. However, depending on where you live and how detailed the design is, it may cost several tens of thousands of dollars.

    It is a very difficult, but extremely satisfying project to construct your own stone and brick oven.We propose it only for those who have advanced masonry abilities.Here are some of the most important procedures, supplies, and tools for building a do-it-yourself outdoor pizza oven:

    DIY Outdoor Pizza Oven Tools and Materials

    • Depending on the design and the materials you choose to work with, the tools you’ll need will differ from one another. However, these fundamental hand and power tools will be required for any home-built pizza oven. Mixer drill with a paddle attachment for mixing mortar
    • Handheld circular saw with brick- and stone-cutting blades
    • Masonry trowels (triangular and square-end)
    • Wire brush
    • Vent piping and cap (if not included with insert kit)
    • Heavy-duty buckets for mixing mortar
    • Heavy-duty buckets for mixing mortar
    • Material requirements will vary depending on your project, but you’ll likely require the following: Mortar/concrete
    • Refractory mortar (or fireclay mortar additive)
    • Firebricks
    • Bricks
    • Natural stone
    • Concrete blocks
    • Vermiculite (insulation)
    • Roof underlayment and sealant
    • Rebar mesh (for pouring a concrete slab)
    • and rebar mesh (for pouring a concrete slab).
    See also:  What Mozzarella To Use For Pizza?

    Pro tip: If your design includes an arch, you’ll need to build an arch-shaped support, which you’ll remove after the arch is complete and the mortar has been set. Wood and plywood, particleboard, and hardboard can all be used as supports. Alternatively, you may have a metal one made by a welder or blacksmith.

    Build the Pizza Oven Base

    • Regardless of whether you purchase a ready-made pizza oven insert or construct your own dome (see below), your pizza oven requires a sturdy, level foundation. It should be constructed on a stable foundation that will not shift or settle. A concrete slab reinforced with rebar mesh is the safest alternative
    • concrete block is preferable since the base must sustain a few thousand pounds of brick, stone, and mortar
    • and a concrete slab reinforced with rebar mesh is the best option.
    • It is common for manufacturers to offer specifications for how tall and broad your foundation has to be when you purchase an insert. If you’re creating everything from scratch, sketch up a design that takes into account the overall height of the base as well as the location of the oven door and other features. Choose a height that is comfortable for the people who will be using the oven the most.

    Pro tip: Construct your concrete base in the shape of a U, and utilize the area underneath the oven for wood storage.

    Choose a Pizza Oven Insert or Build a Dome

    Traditional pizza ovens are fashioned like a dome, an igloo, or an aviation hangar, and they are heated by wood fire.Their ability to attain and sustain the exceptionally high temperatures required to swiftly cook thin, crispy Neapolitan-style pizzas sets them apart from the competition.You may purchase a ready-made insert for your DIY pizza oven or create your own from scratch.

    1. The solution you select will be determined by your budget as well as your DIY skills.
    2. Here are some alternatives to think about: Inserts that are already created.
    3. The use of a prefabricated insert eliminates the guesswork involved in constructing an airtight dome that will not lose heat.

    Masonry pizza oven kits often contain step-by-step instructions for constructing the base and installing the oven, as well as a list of the materials needed for construction.What’s the drawback?They are prohibitively pricey.Simply purchasing the smallest pizza oven attachment can add more than $2,000 to your overall expenditure.Make use of a ″dummy″ insert in your design.Building faultless arches and vaults is extremely difficult, which is why it takes years for stonemasons to learn how to do it properly.

    To save time, you can purchase a ready-made ″dummy″ form, which you can then use to construct an oven vault out of firebricks and refractory mortar.When the mortar has dried, just slide the styrofoam shape out of the way to reveal your brick vault.Create a sand foundation.In the event that you aren’t a seasoned stonemason, here is another way for creating a dome with a consistent shape: First, lay down a sand foundation.

    Build a dome out of mason’s sand (similar to that used for pavers) on top of the brick oven floor that you’ve previously fixed with mortar.You may need to dampen the dome from time to time to keep it from crumbling or falling apart.Form the masonry dome around your sand mold by laying firebricks and refractory mortar on top of the mold.After the brickwork has been set, remove the sand from inside the now-solid dome.

    DIY Pizza Oven Stone and Brick Work

    • Elizabeth Heath is the spokesperson for Family Handyman. Now comes the exciting part. The design of the exterior of your pizza oven is totally up to your imagination and masonry abilities. Many do-it-yourselfers are satisfied with simply covering their oven dome with refractory cement and stucco and calling it a day. You may, however, be a little more creative and construct a flat, domed, or gabled roof on top of your oven. Using brick or a combination of brick and stone to face the oven, create an Old World effect by allowing the two elements to interact with one another. When building your foundation, consider including a hand-built BBQ grill adjacent to the oven if you have a large enough space. Here are some suggestions to bear in mind when you construct the exterior of your pizza oven: For the dome and floor of the oven, you’ll simply need refractory mortar and firebricks to complete the project. You may also utilize regular bricks and mortar in other areas.
    • Build a ″house″ around your pizza oven dome out of concrete blocks and cover it with brick and stone to make it look more authentic.
    • Don’t forget to include the chimney! Make sure to leave enough room for the chimney and to attach and seal it before beginning the masonry work on that portion.
    • Vermiculite, which is a lightweight, nonflammable filler that can be found in the garden area of home improvement shops, may be used to fill any gaps between the oven dome and the facade created by your roof design. Covering the vermiculite with butcher paper before pouring the concrete for the roof is a good idea for a flat-roof design.

    How To Build an Outdoor Pizza Oven: The Ultimate Guide

    Do you enjoy pizza as much as I do?Of course, eating pizza is something that everyone on this god-awesome world enjoys doing.After all, pizza is more than just a meal; it is an experience!

    1. When it comes to eating pizza, we don’t need a reason.
    2. From friendship to breakup, birthday to patch up, no matter how, where, or when, pizza is a cuisine that is always in season for all of us.
    3. But, what do you think of a homemade pizza that has been baked in a wood-fired pizza oven that has been handcrafted?

    Isn’t that interesting?You can learn all you need to know about how to build an outdoor pizza oven right here.Foodtruckempire.com is the source of this information.Ummm… Oven constructed from scratch…It has an antique ring to it!Hahaha… We get what you’re thinking, but these ovens are hot new trends in the kitchen.

    The pizzas made in these ovens are quite delicious, especially the Neapolitan-style pizzas.However, you might be asking how it is even feasible to accomplish this on your own.Don’t worry, we’re here to explain you how to make the greatest slice of pizza at home, right in your own oven.Building an outdoor oven may appear to be a difficult endeavor, but believe us when we say that it is not that difficult.

    With all of the stages and information that we are offering here, the entire procedure is made easier and less complex for you.

    What Is A Pizza Oven?

    Image courtesy of sndimg.com So, before you start putting ″how to build an outdoor pizza oven″ into your Google search bar, make sure you realize what you’re getting yourself into.Wood ovens, also known as wood-fired ovens, are ovens that cook using wood as the primary fuel, as opposed to current electric ovens that run on electricity.Also see: These Outdoor Kitchen Setups Will Transform the Back of Your Home

    How Outdoor Pizza Oven Works?

    Although it may appear to be comparable to cooking over an open heat surface, it is in fact much distinct from this form of cooking.It essentially transmits the majority of the heat from the flame to the oven’s walls, ceiling, and floor by radiating it from the flame.There is also an additional chimney for releasing the smoke.

    1. Interested in wood burning ovens?
    2. There are a variety of alternatives available for any budget.
    3. Building an oven inside your home is not possible; you will need an outdoor space to complete the project.

    It generates a lot of smoke and heat, and you don’t want to risk catching your house on fire, so it’s best to build it outdoors rather than inside!For Your Next Outdoor Party, Use This Hot New Pizza Oven!

    Types Of Pizza Oven

    Generally speaking, there are two sorts of wood ovens that you’ll find in the residences.Among the options are brick pizza ovens, and portable wood fired pizza ovens are also available.In this blog post, we’ll show you how to build an outdoor brick pizza oven from scratch.

    1. The steps in this article will show you how to construct an outdoor pizza oven in your garden.
    2. Instructions may be found at instructables.com.
    What You’ll Need

    The following is a list of the materials that you’ll need to construct an oven. Read the list carefully and make sure you have everything.

    Materials:

    • For the Oven Base: 3/4-inch quick-set concrete
    • a 4-foot by 4-foot piece of melamine-faced medium-density fiberboard (MDF) panel with a common thickness of 3/4-inch
    • a 4-foot by 4-foot piece of melamine-faced medium-density fiberboard (MDF) panel with a common thickness of 3/4-inch
    • The following materials are required: Steel rebar mesh, 10 gauge, flush cut
    • Drywall screws, 1 5/8-inch
    • Silicone caulk, black or similar dark color
    • Mineral oil or paste wax can be used as a release agent.
    • Decorative bricks, mortar, scrap cardboard, (2) scrap pieces of MDF, OSB, or plywood, each 18 inches by 18 inches, 75 pounds of sand, and a baking sheet are used for the oven top.
    • Plastic sheeting
    • metal duct pipe with a 6-inch diameter and a 2-foot circumference
    Tools: 
    • Carpenter’s pencil, circular saw, cordless drill, hammer, jigsaw, mason’s trowel, masonry chisel, metal snips or hacksaw, rubber mallet, and other hand tools
    • Spray bottle with water
    • mixing tub for concrete
    • and other items.

    Alternatively, if you don’t have access to a large number of tools and supplies, you may purchase an oven kit, which is available online or from a local retailer.″However, you will require some of the necessary equipment and materials.″ Is It Possible To Build An Outdoor Pizza Oven?After you’ve gathered all of your supplies and equipment, it’s time to get started on building your oven.

    1. Here are the 11 stages that will provide you with all of the information you’ll require:
    1. Plan

    Image courtesy of pinimg.com The first and most critical stage, without a doubt, is preparation.Decide where you want to put the oven and what size you want it to be before you start.Make certain that the oven’s dimensions correspond to the size of your yard; otherwise, it will appear odd.

    1. ″Make certain that the oven depth, height, breadth, and chimney location are all properly planned and in the proper proportions.″
    2. Create A Base

    Traditionaloven.com is the source of this information.Given that you want to utilize wood as a fuel, the foundation should be both sturdy and fireproof.To construct one, concrete pavers and a strong slab should be used.

    1. Place the bricks one by one onto each other in a square shape (with one side open) and bind them together using the cement paste to form the structure.
    2. As soon as you have reached the appropriate height for this square, place a slab on top of it.
    3. Use Supports

    James Gleave’s website is the source of this information. You may also use temporary supports to support the slab and walls while they are being installed.

    4. Cover The Base

    Image courtesy of pinimg.com Following that, the cement is applied to the base to give it a completed and polished appearance, and the process is repeated.

    5. Arrange The Bricks

    Eracaperealty.com is the source of this information. After you’ve finished building the base of your oven, it’s time to move on to the upper portion of the structure. Which is a little difficult, but you can do it! To begin, place your bricks on the floor in the precise shape of a dome with the appropriate proportions so that you can truly picture the oven top.

    6. Create An Arch

    Wp.com is the source of this information.When you’re through with the measurements, it’s time to go to work on the project.Begin at the bottom of the structure and arrange the bricks in a semicircle formation.

    1. Make sure to reduce the number of bricks used as you increase the height of the structure to create a dome.
    2. Put the sand in the shape of a dome in order to get the desired shape of the dome.
    3. It has something to do with the sand and then placing the bricks on top of it.

    ″You may also use granite or other materials to frame and embellish the front half of the dome arch.″

    7. Make Chimneys

    Image courtesy of pinimg.com And, because the chimney is the most crucial feature of the wood oven, be sure you leave enough room in the upper section of the arch for it to fit.If you don’t have them, your oven will not be able to do its job, and if you start cooking in this sort of oven, you will only end up with burnt food.In an upwards direction, construct your chimney in tube shape.

    1. Make certain that the height of your chimney is sufficient to prevent smoke from getting into your eyes.
    8. Layer The Outer Part With Cement

    WordPress.com is the source of this information. After you have completed the construction phase, it is necessary to cover your dome or arch with cement in order to provide a clean and finished appearance for your oven. Only the same procedure must be followed as was done with the oven’s base section previously.

    9. Remove The Sand And Supports

    WordPress.com is the source of this information: It’s time to cover your dome or arch with cement once you’ve completed the building phase to ensure that your oven is clean and finished in appearance. All you have to do now is repeat the method that you used to clean the base of the oven.

    10. Let It Dry With A Small Fire Inside

    Instructions may be found at instructables.com. Put some wood in the firepit area and let it burn for a while to completely dry out your oven (lightly). The heat will completely eliminate all of the moisture from it, resulting in a firm and durable baking oven.

    11. Paint it!

    Gardengeek.net is the source of this information. The final stage is to paint the finished products. Once you’ve decided on the paint color and applied a fresh coat of paint, your outdoor pizza oven will be ready in no time! Benefits

    1. It is simple to construct, and it may also be used to heat your home.
    2. The farm villa pizza may be made using items you already have in your garden
    3. you can build your own farm villa pizza whenever you like.
    4. Last but not least, in addition to pizza, you may prepare a variety of other dishes such as salmon, chicken and even muffins.
    See also:  How To Make Small Pizza Dough?

    Precautions

    1. Make certain that the measurements are accurate.
    2. When you’re cooking, be sure that the flame is appropriate for the food you’re preparing because, when compared to electric ovens, it might be difficult to determine the precise temperature of the food you’re preparing.

    The website theselfsufficientliving.com provided the information.With these suggestions, you can turn your backyard into the perfect entertaining space.We are confident that after reading this, your mouth will moisten and your stomach will beg for a slice of pizza.

    1. For the time being, you can purchase pizza online, but the next time you have a need for pizza, prepare it in your outdoor pizza oven.
    2. Later on, please express your gratitude to us for pushing you to construct an outdoor pizza oven.
    3. Visit Architectureideas.com for more unique and bizarre DIY projects like this one, as well as amazing home design inspiration.

    How do you build an outside oven?

    Making a Clay Oven from Scratch Make a foundation for your table.The most basic raised oven is one that is erected on top of a wooden table.Ensure that the tabletop is well-insulated.

    1. It is critical to prevent heat from radiating from the oven floor to the base of the oven.
    2. Make a brick foundation for the floor.
    3. Draw a circle using chalk.

    Make a sand dome out of the sand.Create a layer of newspaper.Create a clay dome using your hands.Remove the oven door from its hinges.

    How much does it cost to build a brick oven outside?

    The materials required to construct an average-sized brick pizza oven cost more than $950 in total. Brick ovens are the most costly type of oven available. If you build your own clay and concrete ovens, they will cost between $275 and $350 to purchase.

    Can you build a pizza oven with normal bricks?

    So, is it possible to turn ancient brick into a pizza oven? For a pizza oven, you can use bricks that are made of clay and have been kiln burned (firebrick or red clay brick), but if they are made of concrete, you should steer clear. Clay bricks can resist the high temperatures generated by a pizza oven, but concrete bricks cannot.

    What kind of clay do you use for an outdoor oven?

    Any type of fire clay will most likely suffice. Workability and cost are two of the reasons we suggest Hawthorn Fire Clay. In comparison to ″potter’s clay,″ which is often a moist clay with fluxes and glass formers that are not required for use in a clay oven, this dry clay is significantly cheaper.

    What kind of oven bakes polymer clay?

    When it comes to baking polymer clay, toaster ovens are an ideal choice: Positve aspects: You almost certainly already have one, and they are simple to use and monitor. In addition, toaster ovens are remarkably similar to traditional clay-bake ovens. In such case, your best choice is to use your toaster oven if you have one handy.

    Is a wood fired pizza oven worth it?

    The Ooni pizza oven, which starts at $299 for their base model, is a significant investment. It is possible that installing a pizza oven to your outdoor space can bring you a great deal of delight and make pizza night even more thrilling! Additionally, this is a well-made, high-quality cooking device that will endure for years if you take good care of it.

    Does a pizza oven have to be dome shaped?

    The Ooni pizza oven is a significant investment, costing $299 for their base model. In contrast, installing a pizza oven in your outside space may bring you great delight and make pizza night even more thrilling. Apart from that, this is a well-built, high-quality cooking device that will endure for years if you treat it with respect.

    What kind of concrete do you use for a pizza oven?

    High-alumina cement is employed in all building projects, including the installation of an outdoor pizza oven. There are several advantages to employing alumina cement in the construction of a pizza oven rather than any other type of conventional cement.

    What kind of stone is good for cooking?

    Granite is extremely robust, and it can withstand temperatures as high as 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit while also being cold to subzero temperatures. When heated, granite cooking stones may be used for a variety of cooking tasks such as grilling, baking, and warming meals. Granite may be used as serving platters for chilled dishes if it is frozen before to use.

    Can you cook on natural stone?

    The usage of natural stone cooking plates for beautiful and elegant dinners served indoors or on the terrace, as opposed to grills (also made of natural stone!) that are meant for various sorts of dinners and celebrations, is becoming more popular. Natural stone, on the other hand, is the material that best retains the flavor of your food in both conditions.

    What is a deck oven?

    Among artisan-style bakers, deck ovens are the focal point of every artisan bakery, and they are frequently regarded as a critical piece of baking equipment. Baking in deck ovens is accomplished using conduction heat, which is a procedure in which heat flows straight from an extremely hot stone or deck to the loaf of bread or sheet pan that is being cooked.

    How many bricks do I need to build a pizza oven?

    When Building a Pizza Oven, How Many Bricks Are Necessary? Depending on the size of your oven, you may require anywhere from 100 to 250 clay bricks and as many as 25 concrete blocks to construct it. In this case, there isn’t a single answer that applies to all situations because the proportions of your design are unique.

    Which is better clay or concrete bricks?

    Due to heat gain and loss, both concrete and clay bricks expand and compress in response to the changing temperature. Because concrete brick has a higher density than concrete block, it has fewer air pockets, which results in a lower water absorption rate. Concrete bricks have a higher compressive strength than clay bricks, which is why they are preferred over clay bricks.

    Are red bricks heat resistant?

    Expansion and contraction of both concrete and clay bricks are caused by the transfer of heat between them. Because concrete brick has a higher density than concrete block, it has fewer air spaces, which means it absorbs less water. Concrete bricks have a higher compressive strength than clay bricks, which is why they are used in construction.

    What can I use instead of fire bricks?

    Firebrick substitutes are available.Ankar Sandstone is a kind of sandstone.Ankar sandstone is a kind of sandstone that is formed by volcanic activity.

    1. Bricks made of red clay.
    2. When firebrick is not available, simple red clay bricks might be used in its place as an alternative.
    3. Refractory Concrete is a type of concrete that is resistant to fire.

    In addition to refractory concrete, there are various options for heat retention.Soapstone.

    Where can I get fireclay?

    Alternatives to the Firebrick masonry construction method Sandstone from Ankara.Ankar sandstone is a kind of sandstone that is formed as a result of volcanic activity.Bricks of red clay.

    1. It is also possible to use simple red clay bricks in place of firebrick as an alternative.
    2. Refractory Concrete is a type of concrete that has the ability to withstand extreme temperatures.
    3. The use of refractory concrete can also help to retain heat.

    Soapstone.

    What Makes The Best Wood Fired Oven? In Search of the Best Wood Fired Oven

    1. What characteristics identify the best wood-fired oven from the rest?
    2. A question that every wood oven buyer, whether for home or business use, must ask themselves while looking for a wood oven.
    3. However, cutting through the clutter of information is difficult if one wants to see the wood for the trees.

    If you’re frugal with your money, or if you only want to do one kitchen renovation in the next several years and you want it to be perfect, the life of the oven should be the beginning point for your calculations.The greatest wood-fired oven for you must be one that you will be able to use for a long period of time in your home.That isn’t as simple as it appears to be.The market is being inundated with wood-fired ovens, and some manufacturers are making a lot of noise about their products.However, if it is very loud, consider why.

    • Who knows what they have to say about empty vessels after all….
    • If you can get beyond the smokescreen, you might be surprised to learn that even the most reputable wood-fired oven vendors are unable to provide a single example of an oven that has been in operation for even five years.
    • Some people are even having difficulty locating one that is less than two years old.
    • A wood-fired oven that can be put in and taken out in such a short period of time cannot be regarded a best-buy option.
    • So, what is it about some wood-fired pizza ovens that makes them live longer while other wood-fired pizza ovens fail very quickly?
    • The answer may be found in the materials that are used to construct them.

    Consider a wood-fired oven to be a physical structure.If you use low-quality cement, it will disintegrate, especially if the structure is required to withstand a considerable quantity of thermal stress.If you need a visual reminder of this while out shopping, consider the fable of the Three Little Pigs from children’s literature.

    1. If you construct your oven with the equivalent of straw or sticks, the wolf will arrive and destroy it.
    2. You may borrow a page from the third little pig’s book, who built a wall out of bricks, to keep the wolf away from your door.
    3. Without a doubt, it can’t just be any brick.

    There is a requirement for refractory brick, and if you want the greatest wood-fired oven, you should look for one that is constructed of the best refractory brick available.The term ″refractory″ refers to materials that can tolerate extremely high temperatures without deteriorating or softening, and these materials are utilized for heat insulation in furnaces, as well as in jet engines and even sections of space shuttles, among other applications.For oven applications, refractory clay is the ideal refractory material to use.

    Refractory cement or conglomerates such as Micromesh are not recommended.Clay is far weaker and has significantly inferior thermal characteristics than cement.A micromesh structure is composed of a mixture of fibres and metal particles that are combined with cement in order to increase both thermal and structural characteristics.

    Unfortunately, it has been discovered that it has the opposite effect.When the materials’ expansion characteristics clash, the result is tension and material break-up in the structure.Ovens equipped with micromesh have been reported to operate for just a limited length of time and to deposit particles into the oven and the food being cooked.If you want to be extra cautious with your purchase, inquire as to whether the oven has been food-safety tested and whether you can see the certification.You’ll be shocked at how few ovens are equipped with this feature.Of course, this is one of the reasons why Valoriani ovens are so exceptional.

    The Valoriani family has had a long-standing association with ceramics and furnaces that dates back to 1890, and they learnt what they know about ovens via hands-on experience.When post-war Italy was forced to give southern households with an oven in which they could bake their own bread as part of the process of reconstructing Italy in the 1940s, they were able to put their abilities to use by creating vases, jugs and other ceramics.It was necessary to manufacture high-quality refractory bricks in order for families to construct their ovens.Valoriani recognized an opportunity to manufacture their own pre-fabricated ovens and developed a design that has never been exceeded – yet another reason why Valoriani manufactures the greatest wood-fired ovens.

    The design provides owners with everything they require, including a pizza oven floor that will not disintegrate or crack, excellent insulation and heat retention, a perfect flow of air around the oven, an oven that heats up quickly and cools down slowly, and an aesthetic appeal that matches the substance.As a result, if you are seeking for the greatest wood-fired oven, Valoriani is the only name you should consider.Thousands of Italians, as well as a slew of television personalities, celebrities, and elite chefs, surely do not.

    Can Pizza Ovens Be Square? And Other Building Tips

    1. When it comes to building or acquiring a pizza oven, there are several questions to consider.
    2. One of them is about the pizza oven’s distinctive domed form, which is described below.
    3. Is there a rationale for this, or is it just a matter of tradition?

    Is it possible for pizza ovens to be square?Square or rectangular pizza ovens with an arched ceiling are possible, but they are less popular than others.The heat efficiency of a domed pizza oven is improved due to more evenly reflected heat and improved hot air flow.A hotter oven with fewer cool patches is the result of this.This article goes into detail about how pizza ovens function and why the dome design is the most effective.

    • If you are ready to purchase a pizza oven, then read my pizza oven buying guide, which contains everything you need to know before making your purchase.
    • If you’re interested in learning more about the Ooni Karu 12 portable pizza oven, click here (link to their website).

    Why Most Pizza Ovens Are Domed

    How Heat Works In a Pizza Oven

    When you bake a pizza in the oven, three distinct types of heat are applied concurrently to ensure that the pizza is properly cooked.

    Convection Heat

    1. The flow of heated air around the oven is referred to as convection.
    2. Cool air enters the front of the oven chamber, warms up, and then circulates around the chamber.
    3. In domestic ovens, convection is achieved by using a fan to circulate the air; but, in a pizza oven, convection occurs naturally.

    It helps to maintain a more consistent temperature.The convection cooking procedure ensures that food is cooked uniformly since any hot or cool air pockets are removed as a result of the constantly moving air.

    Radiant Heat

    1. Essentially, this refers to heat that is reflected back down to the meal itself.
    2. The heat from the fire is transferred to the oven walls, where it is stored in the brick and subsequently reflected back.
    3. This explains why you can cook in a pizza oven without using a fire — the energy that has been stored in the bricks previously is now being used for the cooking process.

    If you have better radiation, you will be able to cook your food at greater temperatures.

    Conductive Heat

    1. Conduction is the transmission of heat from a hotter surface to a cooler surface that occurs as a result of contact between the surfaces.
    2. This occurs on the oven floor when the uncooked dough is placed on top of a hot brick in a pizza oven, according to the manufacturer.
    3. Getting crisp pizza bases and properly cooked dough starts from the bottom up, which is why you need to start from the bottom up.

    This method is effect

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published.

    Adblock
    detector