What Is Biga Pizza Dough?

The explosion of the world of pizza and long leavening products has brought to light many different methods for kneading the dough. Among the most recurring themes there is the use of biga, a pre-dough obtained by mixing water, flour and yeast very easy to make at home.

What is biga dough?

What is biga? Biga is a type of preferment or yeast starter that does not include salt in its preparation, only flour, water and yeast. It is a stiff preferment due to its lower hydration level, usually in the range of 50–60% water absorption.

Is poolish or biga better for pizza?

You can use poolish for bread with a crunchy crust and tray baked or thin-crust pizzas. Generally speaking, a poolish is quicker and easier and it can be made with medium-strength flours. A biga takes longer because it needs a longer fermentation time and you have to be more careful controlling the temperature.

What is the difference between biga and poolish?

Poolish has a loose consistency and is typically made with equal parts water and flour with a small percentage of commercial yeast. Biga, which is more like a dough than a batter, has a lower hydration than poolish and sponge, which is mostly used for enriched doughs, contains milk, eggs, butter, and/or sugar.

Does biga rise?

The important point about a biga is that the breads made with it develop a wonderful taste because their risings are long and bring out the flavor of the grain.

What biga fermented?

Biga is a type of pre-fermentation used in Italian baking. Many popular Italian breads, including ciabatta, are made using a biga. Using a biga adds complexity to the bread’s flavor and is often used in breads that need a light, open texture with holes.

How long does biga last?

Biga will keep in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, or in the freezer for about 3 months. You can use it as soon as it ferments, but I prefer to give it an overnight retarding to bring out more flavor. Stir together the flour and yeast in a 4-quart bowl (or in the bowl of an electric mixer).

How do you feed biga?

You can start the biga with 1g of yeast for the first day and thereafter keep feeding with just flour and water which will get it off to a flying start, or with 10% natural yogurt for the first day only, and again after that keep feeding with only flour and water.

Is biga the same as sourdough starter?

Not really. Biga is a starter made with a tiny bit of yeast, allowed to ferment overnight, and used the next day. It can then be fed using part of the dough, and kept alive for some time. It then becomes a sort of sourdough starter, but lacks the lactobacilli in sourdough.

How do you know biga is ready?

You’ll know your biga is ripe and ready when the dough is domed and just beginning to recede in the center. The best thing about bigas: they offer a lot of flavor and many qualities of sours without the time commitment. Prepare 8-24 hours before baking.

Can you use 00 flour instead of all purpose?

Can You Substitute All-Purpose for 00 Flour? The simple answer is yes, you can. Many recipes that call for 00 flour will often call for all-purpose as a substitute. There shouldn’t be any problems using it in your favorite homemade cake, but you will notice a slightly chewier texture with the all-purpose.

What percentage of dough should be poolish?

*The Poolish can be used at up to 60% of the total weight of final developed dough.

How do you use biga dough?

If you use a SHORT Biga with 16 hours of fermentation, you can use it with a proportion between 30% to 50% of the flour’s weight in the recipe. For example, on 1kg of flour in a pizza recipe, you will use 300gr to 500gr to prepare the Biga, and the rest you will add in the final dough.

What is a sponge in baking bread?

A sponge is just as it sounds: a bubbled mixture of flour, water and a touch of yeast. For a rather low-rent approach, it produces rather phenomenal results: a crust and flavor like sourdough, with less of the taste that some sourdough haters can do without, due to shortened pre-fermentation.

What is starter dough?

A sourdough starter, also called levain, is a fermented dough filled with natural, wild yeast and a bacteria called lactobacilli. The starter is what makes sourdough bread rise. Instead of using active dry yeast like in other bread recipes, sourdough bread uses a starter.

How to make Neapolitan pizza dough with Biga?

HOW TO MAKE NEAPOLITAN PIZZA DOUGH WITH BIGA: 1 Break away and measure 500g/17.6oz biga and add it to a bowl. 2 Slowly add the water with the biga, keeping 50ml aside for a later step. 3 Next gently mix the biga together with the water (in a massage like motion) and you will see it start to turn white. More items

What is the percentage of Biga in baking?

It’s referred to as ‘100% Biga’ as 100% of the flour used in this recipe goes into the Biga pre-ferment on day 1. The baker’s percentage is listed next to each ingredient in brackets. This is the percentage of the total flour. For example, when using 1kg of flour, 10g of yeast is 1%.


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What is biga?

  • Biga is a sort of preferment or yeast starter that is made solely of flour, water, and yeast, and does not contain any salt in its creation. Given its decreased hydration level, which typically ranges between 50 and 60% water absorption, it is considered a stiff preferment by some. To the Italians, biga is equivalent to what poolish is to the French. A variety of applications include: improving the functionality of gluten and strengthening dough
  • shortening final fermentation time by using less yeast
  • enhancing aroma and flavor
  • maturing and increasing consistency of dough
  • extending the shelf life of bread. Biga is used in the following applications:


Italian bakers are credited with inventing this sort of preferment.It was only a few years after the discovery of baker’s yeast that the process for producing biga was perfected and refined.In the nineteenth century, several bakers in Europe abandoned the use of sourdough in favor of more efficient manufacturing procedures, but they soon realized that they needed to recapture some of the taste and fragrance that had been lost as a result of the transition.

In order to produce traditional Italian bread items on a regular basis, biga was prepared fresh every day and added to recipes at varying degrees depending on the formula.1,2


  • As a result of its rigid consistency (low hydration level), it lends strength to the dough, which was really its intended function from the beginning.
  • Because of the lengthy fermentation period involved in making biga bread, the flavor is complex.
  • The protracted fermentation period happens as a result of the yeast’s mobility and metabolic activities being hampered or slowed down by the limited amount of free water accessible to it.
  • Yeast also propagates at a slower rate and eats a portion of the carbohydrates in the dough.
  • Biga is frequently employed in breads that require a light and open structure, i.e., a higher proportion of cells.
  • Because of its increased acidity level, or lower pH, it aids in the preservation of bread by increasing the shelf life of the product.


  • A typical biga is made with flour, water, and yeast as the primary ingredients. The following are examples of possible quantities: 100 percent bread flour
  • 50–60 percent water
  • 100 percent butter
  • Fresh yeast (0.8–1.5 percent) or instant yeast (0.1 percent) are also acceptable.
  • Because complete gluten development is not the goal in this case, the mixture is just stirred until it forms a homogenous dough, and then left to ferment for 8–16 hours at a temperature of 15–20°C (59–68°F).
  • In order to accommodate the baker’s needs and the type of bread being created, the fermentation conditions (time and temperature) may be adjusted as needed.
  • When it is fully ripe, it will be domed in the middle and will have just begun to retreat.


  • Biga is allowed to ferment for the appropriate amount of time before the remaining flour and water are added to the dough side of the dough. After 30–60 minutes of floor time, the dough is divided/cut, shaped, and proofed for a final time for around 30–60 minutes before being cooked in the oven. Bakers should use caution when using biga in conjunction with stronger flour to prevent impairing extensibility. If the extensibility of the dough is compromised, increasing the hydration or using an autolyse will aid in restoring the proper balance. 1 Breads made from high-hydration doughs, Danish dough (67 percent biga in final dough formula), filoncini burro y nocci (20 percent biga in final dough formula), and filoncini burro y nocci (20 percent biga in final dough formula) are some of the products made with biga. Ciabatta is one of the products made with biga, which is 40 percent biga in final dough formula.


  1. Suas, M., ″Fermentation,″ in Advanced Bread and Pastry: A Professional Approach, Delmar, Cengage Learning, 2009, pp. 86–88
  2. Suas, M., ″Fermentation,″ in Advanced Bread and Pastry: A Professional Approach, Delmar, Cengage Learning, 2009, pp. 86–88
  3. Suas, M., ″Fermentation,″ in Advanced Bread and Pastry: A Professional Approach, Delmar, Cengage Learning,
  4. According to Stella Culinary, ″The Three Mother Preferences and How to Use Them″ are three different types of mother preference.
  5. Accessed on the 30th of March, 2018
  6. Hamelman, J. Bread – A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes, 2004, p. 105
  7. Hamelman, J. Bread – A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes, 2004, p. 105
  8. Hamelman, J. Bread – A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes, 2004, p. 105

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Poolish or Biga: Meet the Starters that Add Character to your Bake

  • Poolish, also known as liquid biga or yeast, is a leavening process that is commonly employed in indirect baking techniques.
  • In baking, it is a pre-ferment that gives baked foods their soft, fragrant, and aromatic texture, particularly in bread and pizza.
  • Poolish is produced by combining variable amounts of water, flour, and yeast in a large mixing bowl.
  • The proportion of yeast in the dough varies depending on how long it has been leavened for.
  • As a result, there is no direct baking since the dough is made in two stages: first the poolish is produced, and then the remaining components are added to this ‘yeast.’ In general, the more yeast you use in the poolish, the longer the time it will take for the poolish to be ready for use in your recipes to be ready.
  • The amount of poolish that should be used in the dough might vary, but in most cases, the amount of poolish should be equivalent to one-third of the total flour weight, estimated by the weight of the whole flour.
See also:  How Long Can You Leave Pizza Out Before It Goes Bad?

Poolish or biga – which one should you use?

Poolish and biga are extremely close, but not exactly the same, so it’s important to point out the distinctions depending on what you’re baking and what you’re looking for.

What is biga?

  • Biga is a more robust preferment that takes a longer period to ferment than other preferments (from 16 to 24-48 hours).
  • It necessitates the use of strong and high-quality flours, as well as the use of a tough dough and precise temperature management.
  • Preparing the preferment is more difficult, but it results in a product with outstanding honeycomb, with huge and regular honeycombs, as a result of the laborious procedure.
  • Biga is typically used for huge loaves and leavened items, as well as soft focaccias and pizzas baked in a Roman-style frying pan or oven (but there are no fixed rules).
  • While patience and the correct equipment will be required, the end product will be well worth it.

What is poolish?

  • The poolish, on the other hand, is a pre-dough that is made using medium strength flours.
  • The preparation can take as little as 2 hours or as much as 12-16 hours (ranging from 2 to 12-16 hours), but it is always less time-consuming and tough than the biga.
  • It is possible to achieve a more crisp look on the exterior by using poolish.
  • The alveoli will be smaller with poolish.
  • Poolish can be used to make bread with a crispy crust as well as pizzas cooked on a tray or with a thin crust.
  • It is often considered to be quicker and easier to make a poolish, which may be produced using medium-strength flours.
  • A biga takes longer to make because it requires a longer fermentation period and because it requires greater attention to temperature regulation.
  • Poolish or biga can be made with flour that is different from the flour that is used to create bread in the traditional manner.
  • To give your loaf a little additional flavor, try using spelt, rye, or wholewheat flour.
  • Remember that you should never add salt to your biga, which is another important point to remember.

How to make a poolish starter

  • Poolish is the ideal pre-fermentation starter for making authentic French baguettes and Italian focaccia.
  • In comparison to sourdough starter, it is extremely similar to biga, with the exception being that it is much more liquid due to its 100 percent hydration.
  • To create poolish, combine 550 grams of flour with 5 grams of active yeast in a mixing bowl, then add 550 milliliters of warm water (about 80 degrees Celsius).
  • Ensure that the yeast is properly mixed by giving it a thorough mixing..
  • Cover the container with a cover and set it aside at room temperature for 10 to 24 hours, after which you should notice active indications of life, including plenty of bubbles.
  • Watch how it’s done by master baker Billy Parisi, who demonstrates his techniques:

How to make poolish bread

  • Now that you have your poolish prepared, try transforming it into Parisi’s wonderful French boule, which is excellent for toast, sandwiches, or just eating on its alone!
  • To make the bread, combine 550g whole-wheat flour with 150g bread flour, sprinkle with 25g sea salt, and then add 4 grams of active yeast.
  • Pour enough water (between 105° and 107°) into the poolish mix to loosen it up, then pour it over the dry flour mix to combine.
  • Mix with your hands until everything is fully incorporated, then cover and let aside for 20 minutes.
  • Every 20 minutes for an hour, fold the dough in half (so 3 times).
  • Cover and let it rest for 2 hours, 3 hours at the most, by which time it should have more than quadrupled in size.
  • Next, on a floured surface, fold and form the dough into a ball.
  • Place the dough ball on a prepared baking pan, cover with a clean tea towel, and let aside to prove for approximately one hour.
  • Preheat the oven to 500°F with a baking stone or a cookie sheet in it.
  • Transfer the bread on the heated stone or sheet and cover with a big metal bowl to keep the bread warm during baking.
  • If you don’t have one, place a pan on the bottom rack of the oven and add a few ice cubes to create the illusion of steam.

Bake the bread at 500° for 30 minutes if it is covered, then uncover and bake for another 30 minutes, or until golden brown.Allow the bread to cool before slicing it.

How to make pizza with poolish

  • We propose the Italian Pizza Academy’s recipe for fluffy pizza with poolish if you want to make it yourself.
  • There are three ingredients: medium-strength flour (index W 240), water, and fresh brewer’s yeast.
  • It is necessary that the water and flour have the same weight (1:1), while the yeast will be the variable component in the preparation and will vary depending on the leavening durations.
  • The amount of yeast present in the poolish determines how long the waiting period will be.
  • The Pizza Italiana Academy reports the following proportions in general: If the leavening time is 2 hours, the following is true: If the leavening period is 3 hours, 100g of flour with 100ml of water plus 2g of brewer’s yeast equals: 100g of flour plus 100ml of water and 1.5g of brewer’s yeast equals a liter of beer.
  • If the leavening time is 8 hours, the following is true: If the leavening duration is between 12 and 24 hours, 100g of flour plus 100ml of water plus 0.5g of brewer’s yeast equals: The following ingredients: 100g of wheat + 100ml of water + 0.1g of beer yeast A little dip appears in the center of the work after the dough is finished baking, according to Arturo Mazzeo, President of the Pizza Italiana Academy in New York City.
  • In addition, the perfume should not be overpowering.

How to make sheet pan pizza with poolish

  • We propose this quick and easy recipe from Oggi si cucina if you want to try your hand at creating pizza on a tray with poolish, on the other hand.
  • You will need the following ingredients to make the poolish pizza in a pan: Manitoba flour (150 grams) w 350 degrees Fahrenheit at ambient temperature 150 milliliters of water Add 300 g of flour w 350 or manitoba for the dough and 2 g of brewer’s yeast to make a starter.
  • Here is the whole recipe for sheet pan pizza with poolish that you will need to make it at home.
  • You may customize your pizza by stuffing it with tomato and mozzarella, or by adding exotic meats and cheeses that you come up with on your own.

Are Biga, Poolish, and Sponge Interchangeable?

  • We recommend this fast and easy recipe from Oggi si cucina if you want to try your hand at creating pizza on a tray using poolish, though.
  • You will need the following ingredients to create the poolish pizza in a pan: 150 g of flour with 350 or manitoba oats at ambient temperature, 150 mL of water Add 300 g of flour with 350 or manitoba for the dough and 2 g of brewer’s yeast to make a starter.
  • Here is the whole recipe for sheet pan pizza with poolish that you will need to make it yourself.
  • In addition to using tomato and mozzarella, you may also use unique meats and cheeses according to your preferences.

Italian Biga

  • Many classic regional bread recipes, such as this ciabatta recipe, begin with a starter dough produced from minimal amounts of flour, water, and yeast that has been left to ferment for a period of time before being baked.
  • The starter, known in Italy as biga or bighino when used in small amounts, not only gives strength to what are considered weak flours, but it also causes a secondary fermentation, which results in the wonderful aroma, natural flavor, and unique porosity of the final loaves and wheels of bread that are so characteristic of Italian bread.
  • Biga is significant in that the breads baked with it have an incredible flavor as a result of their prolonged risings, which bring out the flavor of the grain.
  • Another advantage is that the loaves retain their freshness longer and taste sweeter than loaves baked with big volumes of commercial yeast do.
  • It is customary in Italy for bakers to repurpose dough from the previous day’s baking to begin a fresh dough.
  • It’s important to me to have some starter on hand at all times; by having it on hand, I can decide to make pane pugliese or ciabatta in the morning and enjoy it for supper that evening.
  • However, because the first biga must originate from someplace, you may choose to produce it yourself by following the steps provided below.
  • It’s very amazing.
  • After being frozen, it only takes approximately 3 hours at room temperature to become bubbly and active again, or it may be kept refrigerated for up to 5 days before being active again.
  • –Carol Field, author

LC Obliged to Biga Note

  • Each and every delicious mouthful of authentic Italian bread that we’ve daintily nibbled, hungrily swallowed, or otherwise enjoyed has been made possible by a biga. As a result, we owe a debt of gratitude to Carol Field for providing us with this recipe. Nonna is not included in this group. Carol Field is a woman who works in the field of education. Preparation time: 20 minutes 6 hours in the oven 6 hours in total a period of twenty minutes 1/4 teaspoon active dried yeast
  • 1/4 cup warm water
  • 3/4 cup plus 4 teaspoons water, ideally bottled spring water, at room temperature
  • 2 1/3 cups unbleached all-purpose flour
  • a little amount of vegetable oil for the mixing bowl
  • Stir the yeast into the heated water and let aside for approximately 10 minutes, or until it becomes creamy.
  • Stir in the remaining water until the mixture is creamy, then gradually add the flour, 1 cup at a time, until the mixture is smooth. Hand-mixing takes 3 to 4 minutes with a wooden spoon if you are doing it by hand. If you’re using a stand mixer, start at the lowest speed and beat for 2 minutes using the paddle attachment. Mix only until a sticky dough develops if using a food processor to combine the ingredients.
  • Transfer the biga to a lightly oiled mixing basin, cover with plastic wrap, and allow it to rise at cool room temperature for 6 to 24 hours, or until it has tripled in volume but is still moist and sticky. (The bakers I like the most recommend a first rise of 10 to 11 hours, while others are quite content with the 24 hours it takes for dough to properly become yesterday’s dough
  • if you want sour bread, leave your biga to rest for 24 to 48 hours or even 72 hours.)
  • Cover the biga and place it in the refrigerator or freezer until you are ready to use it. (If you are storing the biga in the refrigerator, utilize it within 5 days.) Alternatively, if you are freezing the biga, allow it to rest at ambient temperature for around 3 hours until it becomes bubbly and active again.) Scoop out the necessary amount of biga for your recipe as it is needed and proceed as directed. Because the biga grows when exposed to room temperature, it is strongly recommended that it be measured by weight rather than volume. The biga should be cold if you are measuring by volume, but it can be either chilled or at room temperature if you are measuring by weight.
  • 1 cup is the serving size.
  • Calories: 536 kilocalories (27 percent ) 112 grams of carbohydrates (37 percent ) 16 g of protein (32 percent ) 2 g of fat (3 percent ) 1 gram of saturated fat (6 percent ) 1 gram of polyunsaturated fat 1 gram of monounsaturated fat Sodium: 10 milligrams Potassium: 170 milligrams (5 percent ) 4 g of dietary fiber (17 percent ) 1 gram of sugar (1 percent ) Vitamin A (in IU): 3 1 milligram of vitamin C (1 percent ) Calcium: 26 milligrams (3 percent ) 7 milligrams of iron (39 percent ) The original publication date was March 6, 2012.
  • Carol Field created this recipe in 2011.
  • Ed Anderson took this photo in 2011.
  • All intellectual property rights are retained.
  • All assets were used with the consent of the creators.
  • If you prepare this dish, take a photo of it and tag it with the hashtag #LeitesCulinaria.
  • Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter are all excellent places to share your creations.
See also:  What Shape Is A Pizza Slice?

italian bread

  • Biga The Bread Baker’s Apprentice is a story about a young man who wants to be a bread baker.
  • Peter Reinhart is a professional golfer.
  • According to Reinhart: In Italy, practically any pre-fermentation, including wild yeast and sourdough, is referred to as a biga (biga means ″big″ in Italian).
  • Make certain that the biga that is called for in the recipe is of the proper variety if you are preparing a dish from another source that asks for biga in it.
  • If you want, you may use all-purpose flour in place of the bread flour, or you can mix all-purpose and bread flour together.
  • When kept in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, or in the freezer for about 3 months, Biga is delicious.
  • Even while it may be used immediately after fermentation, I prefer to give it an overnight resting period in order to bring out more flavor.
  • This recipe yields around 18 ounces.
  • 2 1/2 cup unbleached bread flour (optional).
  • a half teaspoon of active dry yeast 3/4 cup plus 2 teaspoons to 1 cup room temperature water is recommended.
  • In a 4-quart mixing basin, whisk together the flour and yeast until well combined (or in the bowl of an electric mixer).

Stir in 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons of the water until the mixture comes together and forms a coarse ball of dough (or mix on low speed for 1 minute with the paddle attachment).According to your needs, adjust the amount of flour or water used so that the dough is neither too sticky nor too stiff.(It is preferable to err on the side of being too sticky, because you can modify the consistency more easily when kneading.) Once the dough has firmed up, it is more difficult to include additional water.

  1. Using some flour on the counter, move the dough to the counter and continue working with it.
  2. Knead the dough for 4 to 6 minutes (or mix on medium speed with a dough hook for 4 minutes), or until it is soft and malleable, tacky but not sticky, depending on your preference.
  3. The interior temperature should range between 77 and 81 degrees Fahrenheit.
  4. Toss the dough in a lightly oiled basin and toss it about to cover it with oil before transferring the dough to the bowl.
  5. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let it aside at room temperature for 2 to 4 hours, or until the mixture has approximately doubled in volume.
  6. The dough should be taken out of the basin and kneaded softly to deflate it before being placed back in the bowl and covered with plastic wrap.

Refrigerate the bowl overnight to let the flavors to blend.Refrigeration is recommended for up to 3 days, and freezing in an airtight plastic bag for up to 3 months is recommended for longer storage.Italian Bread is a type of bread that is made in Italy.Peter Reinhart is the author of The Bread Baker’s Apprentice.According to Reinhart: The use of diastatic barley malt powder results in a more vibrant color because it increases the enzyme activity and, as a result, promotes the release of sugar from the starch in the solution.

You may also use nondiastatic barley malt syrup, which will provide taste rather than color to the bread, or you can omit the malt entirely, because malt is already included in most kinds of bread flour (the pre-ferment will contribute some enzymes of its own).King Arthur Flour sells both the powder and the syrup for making the recipe.This recipe yields two 1-pound loaves.3 1/2 quarts of biga unbleached bread flour (about 2.5 cups) 1 and a third tablespoons of salt 1 tablespoon of table sugar 1 teaspoon quick yeast (optional) 1 teaspoon diastatic malt powder (barley malt) (optional) 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil, vegetable oil, or shortening (optional) Lukewarm (90 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit) 3/4 cup to 3/4 cup + 2 teaspoons water For dusting, use semolina flour or cornmeal.Remove the biga from the refrigerator one hour before you want to make the bread dough.Using a pastry scraper or a serrated knife, cut it into approximately 10 little pieces.

Cover with a towel or plastic wrap and let aside for 1 hour to allow the chill to go completely.In a 4-quart mixing basin, whisk together the flour, salt, sugar, yeast, and malt powder until well combined (or in the bowl of an electric mixer).Using your hands, combine the biga pieces, olive oil, and 3/4 cup water until a ball forms (or mix on low speed with the paddle attachment) and adjust the amount of water or flour as needed.

The dough should be slightly sticky and soft, but not batter-like or too sticky, and it should not be overworked.If the dough is tough and hard, add extra water to make it more pliable (it is better to have the dough too soft than too stiff at this point).Transfer the dough to the counter and begin kneading it with flour sprinkled on the counter (or mixing on medium speed with the dough hook).To make the dough tacky but not sticky, knead (or mix) for approximately 10 minutes, adding flour as required, until the dough is pliable and elastic.

The dough should be between 77 and 81 degrees Fahrenheit.Toss the dough in a large mixing bowl with a little olive oil and roll it around so that all of the oil is absorbed.Wrap the bowl tightly in plastic wrap.Allow the dough to rise for approximately 2 hours at room temperature, or until it has doubled in volume.Gently divide the dough into two equal pieces, each weighing approximately 18 ounces.Carefully shape the pieces into batards, following the instructions below, with as little degassing of the dough as possible.

  1. Cover with a towel or plastic wrap and set aside for 5 minutes to allow the flour to absorb the moisture.
  2. Then finish shaping the loaves by extending the length of the loaves to approximately 12 inches.
  3. Prepare a sheet pan by lining it with parchment paper and dusting it with semolina flour or cornmeal.
  1. Place the loaves on the pan and lightly mist them with spray oil to prevent them from sticking.
  2. Cover loosely with plastic wrap.
  3. Proof at room temperature for about 1 hour, or until the loaves have grown to about 1½ times their original size.

Preheat the oven to 500°F, having an empty heavy duty sheet pan or cast-iron fying pan on the top shelf or oven floor.Score the breads with 2 parallel, diagonal slashes or 1 long slash.For loaves, generously dust a peel or the back of a sheet pan with semolina flour or cornmeal and very gently transfer the loaves to the peel or pan.Transfer the dough to the baking stone (or bake on the sheet pan) (or bake on the sheet pan).Pour 1 cup hot water into the steam pan and close the door.After 30 seconds, spray the walls of the oven with water the close the door.

Repeat once more after another 30 seconds.After the final spray, lower the oven setting to 450°F (or 400°F*) and bake until done, rotating 180 degrees, if necessary, for even baking.It should take about 20 minutes for loaves.

The loaves should be golden brown and register at least 200°F at the center.Transfer the loaves to a cooling rack and cool for at least 1 hour before slicing or serving.* If you prefer a crustier loaf, lower the oven temperature to 400 degrees F after the steaming and increase the baking time.This will thicken the crust and give it more crunch.

To Form a Bâtard (Torpedo) The Bread Baker’s Apprentice, Peter Reinhart is a professional golfer.A bâtard (literally, “bastard”) is a torpedo-shaped loaf 6 to 12 inches in length.Gently pat the dough into a rough rectangle.Without degassing the piece of dough, fold the bottom third of dough, letter style, up to the center and press to seal, creasing surface tension on the outer edge.Fold the remaining dough over the top and use the edge of your hand to seal the seam closed and to increase the surface tension all over.

  • Set the bâtards aside either for proofing or to rest for further shaping.

Bread Starters Part Two: Biga and Poolish

  • Recipes for Healthy Living and Special Diets Recipes for Inside the Mill If you had the opportunity to try one of the preferments covered in the last post (pâte fermentée or a sponge), I hope you like them. What characteristics of your bread did you notice? Was it taller than the previous one? Stronger? Is there a better crumb? Fabulous! Then there are other preferments that are recognized for having a bit extra taste to go along with their fantastic structure-boosting properties. The first is biga. ciabatta and focaccia are two examples of breads made using biga, which is a traditional Italian preferment that is frequently used with exceptionally soft, highly hydrated doughs. With a ratio of 2 parts flour to 1 part water, this preferment produces an extremely stiff mixture that can be difficult to mix by hand at times. A biga will appear to be fairly ineffective after the initial mix. But, if you wait a few hours, it will soften and become more hydrated. When the dough is domed and just beginning to recede in the middle, you’ll know your biga is ripe and ready. Largely due to their high taste and many characteristics of sours, bigas are a time-saving alternative to traditional fermented foods. Biga Preparation should begin 8-24 hours before baking. Bread recipe flour accounts for 30 percent of the total flour
  • water accounts for 15 percent of the entire flour
  • yeast accounts for 8-10 percent of the total yeast.
  • Next up is poolish, which happens to be my personal fave within the preferment family (shh, don’t tell the others). Poolish was invented in Poland (thus the name) and has gained such widespread popularity that it is now one of the most commonly used ingredients in French bakeries. That’s correct, French boulangers have abandoned their traditional pâte fermentée in favor of a poolish from Poland. What is the reason for its widespread acceptance? Although you will get a fantastic rise, crust, and structure from this recipe, you will also receive a beautiful moist crumb with a chewy texture and incredible flavor. I’m in love with the flavor! Sweet and zesty, and almost perfect in every way. Poolish is the most hydrated of the preferments (1 part flour to 1 part water), and it has the appearance of being practically liquid. This high moisture level is what gives the winning crumb and chew to the product in question. When the surface is covered with little bubbles, it indicates that the fruit is ripe. Poolish loses its leavening effect when it has risen to a certain height and has begins to recede (this is referred to as a ″high water mark″). Restart the process. Alternatively, if you’re wondering what to create with a poolish, try this recipe for Whole Wheat English Muffins. Here at Bob’s, they were a tremendous hit, and I wolfed down three of them in about 20 minutes. Seriously. Poolish Preparation should be done 4-24 hours before baking. Flour from the bread recipe accounts for 30% of the total amount of flour used.
  • Water weighs the same as 30 percent of the entire flour in this recipe.
  • Yeast Approximately 8-10 percent of the total yeast from the bread recipe
  • A word or two regarding the measurements Perhaps you’ve noticed that all of the formulae up to this point have made use of percentages and reference weights.
  • What is the reason behind this?
  • Due to the fact that measuring by weight is significantly more precise than measuring by volume.
  • If you are serious about baking and want to create consistently outstanding results, a scale is a wonderful investment.
  • Give yourself a break.
  • As well as your diners.
  • For the home chef, the cost of a set of baker’s scales is quite reasonable.
  • And, because you have the option of measuring in either the American Standard or the metric system, you may create delectable recipes from those wacky nations that don’t use our ounces and pounds (which is everyone).
  • Keep an eye out for the major guns, which will be organically cultured sourdough starters, which will be unveiled next week.
  • Sources: Poolish and biga Biga are two types of artisan bread to bake.
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This Is Why 00 Flour Is Better Than Others

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What does “Double Zero” Mean?

  • Wheat flours are classified according to how much protein they contain in the United States and many other parts of the world.
  • It is done slightly differently in Italy and a few other European nations; the categorization is based on how finely ground the flour is and how much of the germ and bran has been removed from it.
  • The Italian grading system is divided into five categories: 2, 1, 0, and 00.
  • Type 2 is the coarsest grind, and as a result, it contains the highest concentration of germ and bran.
  • Increasing the fineness of the grind and removing more of the germ and bran as you progress through the system.
  • Double zero flour, commonly known as doppio zero flour or 00 flour, is the most refined type of flour.
  • The texture is silky smooth, and it has a baby powder feel about it.
  • Caputo type 00, which is one of the most widely accessible kinds in the United States, is sometimes referred to as the gold standard.
  • Many chefs across the world, particularly those in Naples, where pizza is often considered to have been developed, make use of this technique.
  • It is intended for use in a home oven at temperatures between 450 and 500°F.
  • If you have an oven that can reach 700°F or higher, you might want to experiment with their Pizzeria flour, which is developed for ovens that can reach that temperature or greater in temperature.

Is Double Zero Flour High in Protein?

  • The next section is when things start to become a bit complicated.
  • The amount of protein in 00 flour varies based on the type of wheat used in its production.
  • Most 00 flour packets will have the words ″soft wheat″ or ″hard wheat″ printed on the front.
  • The majority of 00 flours available in the United States are soft wheat flours derived from durum wheat.
  • They can contain anywhere from 11 to 12.5 percent protein, depending on the type you choose.
  • Durum wheat contains a significant amount of protein, and the gluten it produces is quite powerful.
  • This gluten, on the other hand, is not as elastic as gluten found in other types of wheat.
  • Consequently, you’ll get a baked item with a solid structure and bite, but it won’t have the extended chew that you’d get from a more elastic gluten type.

How Is it Different from All-Purpose Flour?

  • Although American all-purpose flour, also known as British plain flour, has a protein composition that is identical to that of 00 flour, there are several distinctions that you will detect in the texture of the completed baked dish.
  • All-purpose flour is prepared from a combination of multiple varieties of wheat, both hard and soft—most often durum and red wheat—and is used for a variety of purposes.
  • This enables the manufacturer to obtain a mix with a precise quantity of protein, which results in gluten that has more flexibility.
  • This means that a pizza crust produced with all-purpose flour will be chewier than one made using bread flour.

Can You Substitute All-Purpose for 00 Flour?

The short answer is that you absolutely can. All-purpose flour is frequently substituted for 00 flour in many recipes that call for the finer flour. Using it in your favorite handmade cake should offer no difficulties; however, the all-purpose flour will have a little chewier texture than the other types of flour.

What is 00 Flour Best In?

Taste of Home

  • PIZZA, to put it simply.
  • True Neapolitan pizza is made using this flour because it produces a crispy crust with lots of large air pockets that isn’t so chewy that you wind up with a sore jaw after eating a few pieces of it.
  • Josh Rink, a Taste of Home food stylist, uses it in our best pizza dough recipe.
  • It’s also perfect for producing your own handmade pasta dough, which is considerably simpler to accomplish than you may imagine.
  • While 00 flour may be a bit more difficult to come by, you should be able to buy some at a reputable Italian grocery store.
  • However, be aware that you will be required to pay a little extra.
  • Is it really worth it?
  • If you’re going to make your own pizza dough, it’s well worth the investment.
  • Recipes for the 10 Best Pizzas

The Best Sausage Pizzas

The lengthy overnight fermentation of the dough is what distinguishes this recipe from others. Because the flour has had time to hydrate and relax, it is much simpler to roll out the dough. — Josh Rink is a food stylist for Taste of Home.

Artichoke Chicken Pesto Pizza

Make pizza night a more sophisticated affair with this creative take on the classic dish. The use of a pre-baked crust and pre-made pesto makes for a quick and simple meal. —Trisha Kruse of Eagle, Idaho, says

Barbecued Chicken Pizzas

These saucy, smokey pizzas, made using refrigerated pizza dough, are quick and easy to create, and their rustic, hot-off-the-grill flavor is sure to win you over. Those on the go cookouts and summer meals on the terrace are ideal for them. The writer, Alicia Trevithick, of Temecula, California

Homemade Pizza

In this recipe, you will get a filling and zesty main dish with a crisp, golden crust. Feel free to customize your order with your favorite toppings. Marie Edwards, of Lake Stevens, Washington, sent this in:

Pepperoni Pan Pizza

The perfect pizza crust and sauce are two things I’ve been working on for years, and they’re combined in this recipe. I make this crispy, savory pizza for my family on a regular basis, and it is a huge hit with my husband and boys. Susan Lindahl, of Alford, Florida, sent this message.

Bacon-Chicken Club Pizza

A chicken club pizza with lettuce, tomatoes, and mayonnaise on the toppings You’re in for a treat, believe me! Vegetables provide a refreshing crunch to the creamy crust. Debbie Reid from Clearwater, Florida, sent in this message.

Grilled Tomato Pizzas

When my husband and I grill pizza with a tart balsamic sauce, it comes out tasting like we baked it in a wood-burning oven. • Michele Tungett from Rochester, Illinois.

Deep-Dish Sausage Pizza

  • When my family and I spend the night at my grandmother’s farm, she prepared the most delicious food for us.
  • Her delicious pizza, fresh from the oven, was topped with cheese and infused with aromatic herbs in the dough.
  • It was delicious!
  • My husband and I, as well as our family, have come to rely on this pizza as a regular supper.
  • —Michele Madden, of Washington Court House, in the United States In the event that you like this recipe, we believe you will enjoy this crazy crust pizza just as much (if not more)!

Garden-Fresh Grilled Veggie Pizza

I have four gardens, one of which is dedicated solely to herbs, so I always have a nice variety of food available. In order to serve as a fun summer snack, I made this stuffed pizza using some of my favorite garden ingredients. Washington, Illinois, resident Dianna Wara

Buffalo Chicken Pizza

Fans of spicy chicken wings will enjoy this pizza-style version, which incorporates the wings into the crust. Serve it with blue cheese dressing and crisp celery, just way the delectable original recipe calls for. —Shari DiGirolamo of Newton, Pennsylvania, U.S.A


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Also known as Pâte fermentée, liquid pre-ferment or liquid sponge

What is Poolish?

  • Poolish is a yeast-cultured dough that is extremely fluid.
  • The term refers to a sort of pre-ferment that has traditionally been employed in the manufacturing of French bread items.
  • A Poolish is similar in appearance to a sponge in the sponge and dough system.
  • Poolish differs from a plastic sponge in that it is fermented for a longer period of time and requires a higher level of hydration—which is why it is referred to as the liquid equivalent of a sponge.
  • 1 Water and flour are often mixed in an equal proportion, resulting in a 100 percent hydration level.


  • During the 1840s in Poland, a nobleman by the name of Baron Zang pioneered the development of this breadmaking technique.
  • Poolish was later introduced into Austria by Viennese bakers, who, after fleeing to France about 1840, used the process to pioneer the manufacturing of Vienna breads and other high-end bakery items in Paris.
  • With this technology, bakers were able to transition away from employing combinations of yeast and sourdough (sur levain in French) and instead use only yeast for the fermentation process in the bakeshop.
  • 2,3

How does a Poolish work?

  • In a Poolish, equal amounts flour and water (by weight) are mixed together with a little yeast (the amount varies according to the expected length of fermentation time, using less for longer, slower fermentations).
  • The fermentation is then carried out at room temperature for intervals of time sufficient to cause bubbles to form and the volume of the product to rise.
  • When the volume reaches its maximum, it begins to sink back somewhat (recede), giving the impression of a wrinkled surface.
  • Depending on the extent of inoculation, this procedure might take anywhere from 3 to 15 hours to complete.
  • 4,2
Compressed yeast inoculation (baker’s %)5 Fermentation time (hours)*
3 1–2
1.5 3–4
0.8 7–8
0.25 12–15
  • Based on a dough temperature of 26–29°C (79–84°F) and 100 percent moisture content. The following factors influence the rate at which fermentation takes place: Acidity of the mixture
  • temperature
  • availability of food supply
  • and water content

Poolish Formula5


  1. Flour
  2. Water (100%)
  3. Fresh or compressed yeast (0.1–1.5%)
Ingredient Baker’s percent
Sponge (Poolish)*
Bread flour 30.0
Water 30.0 (100% hydration)
Yeast, instant 0.7
Bread flour 70.0 (to complete 100%)
Water 37.0 (53% hydration)
Salt 1.75
Malt syrup 1.0

*The Poolish can be used up to 60% of the total weight of the final produced dough, depending on the recipe. Process:

  1. Ingredients are scaled or measured by weight or volume.
  2. Using a low speed to combine the ingredients (for 1–2 minutes at 26°C or 79°F)
  3. Transfer to the fermentation chamber or the trough, as appropriate.
  4. Fermentation


A Poolish is a sponge that is used in the manufacturing of French bread, baguettes, and batards, among other things. The following are the positives and disadvantages:

  • Advantages 6 This product contains natural proteases, which minimize mixing time and soften the dough, hence increasing its machining qualities.
  • The fragrance and flavor profile of a Poolish are superb as a result of the lengthy fermentation and natural aging process, which gives the finished product a distinct character.
  • The breakdown of proteins results in the production of amino acids, which serve as substrates for Maillard reactions (which result in the browning of the crust and the formation of taste).
  • Due to the fact that the same pre-ferment may be used to make numerous batches of dough, a flour brew is a helpful technique in terms of production flexibility.
  • Disadvantages Space is required for the pre-fermentation preparation
  • Process that takes a long time
  • Only specific sorts of bakery items are available
  • The bakery will require room for fermentation as well as containers or troughs (in adequate quantity and size, and with an appropriate sanitary design) for the production of the pre-ferments if a poolish is used on a daily basis, according to the manufacturer.
  • 7 An exc

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