When Did Pizza Delivery Start In The United States?

It wasn’t until the 1960s that pizza delivery in the US really started to take off. This coincided with the growing availability of private vehicles in American homes, and soon, restaurant owners were training employees to be delivery drivers, guaranteeing that food would be delivered in 30 minutes or less.
The service, which consists of delivering the pizzas to the particular customer, is called as pizza delivery. Therefore, that shows the popularity of pizzas. If we take a glance in the history of pizza delivery process, this pizza delivery started in the Second World War in the United States.

When did delivery pizza become a thing?

Pizza delivery is one of the first types of delivery food and it does have quite an esteemed history. The first delivery took place in 1889. Queen Margerita of Savoy actually got a pizza delivery after she became sick local food as she visited outside the region.

Who started pizza delivery in the United States?

Domino’s Pizza is credited with popularizing free pizza delivery in the United States. Pizza Hut began experimenting in 1999 with a 50-cent delivery charge in ten stores in the Dallas-Fort Worth area.

Did they have pizza delivery in the 1950s?

A few of these small pizza shops began delivering pizza with the rise of car culture in the 1950s, but the idea did not catch on until a few big companies decided to make it the focus of their business in the 1960s. Since then, pizza delivery has been a major part of life in America and around the world.

What year did everyone order pizza online?

In 1974, Someone Ordered a Pizza With a Computer for the First Time | Smart News| Smithsonian Magazine.

What year did Pizza Hut start delivering?

In 1986 Pizza Hut opened its 5,000th franchise unit in Dallas, Texas and began its successful home delivery service.

When did Domino’s start delivery?

All About Pizza Domination

From humble beginnings as a single pizza restaurant in 1960, Domino’s has become today’s recognized world leader in pizza delivery.

How did pizza get delivered before GPS?

They used a combination of experience, memorization, and maps, back in the day. Physical, printed, local-area street maps. Most places that do food delivery have a large wall-hanging map in the store, and I strongly suspect most drivers carried a paper map in their cars.

What is the history of the pizza?

Pizza was first invented in Naples, Italy as a fast, affordable, tasty meal for working-class Neapolitans on the go. While we all know and love these slices of today, pizza actually didn’t gain mass appeal until the 1940s, when immigrating Italians brought their classic slices to the United States.

Who invented the pizza delivery bag?

If you had your pizza delivered, you can thank Ingrid Kosar for that piping-hot privilege. As we just learned from this excellent article at The Distance, she’s the inventor of the thermal pizza delivery bag, which has been keeping pizzas warm for the past 30 years.

When did pizza come to the Midwest?

Steamed tamales made from cornmeal filled with seasoned ground beef have been available in Chicago since the 19th century. Thin-crust pizza arrived in Chicago with Italian immigrants in 1909. The origin of deep-dish pizza is disputed but some say Pizzeria Uno first started serving the iconic dish in 1943.

When was pizza introduced to the Midwest?

Let’s start with what we know: Deep-dish pizza was invented at Chicago’s Pizzeria Uno on Ohio Street in the early 1940s. After that, things get a bit hazy.

Why was pizza delivered?

It is believed that the hungry soldiers were craving food (pizza) they had eaten abroad. Since the soldiers couldn’t visit the nearest pizza shop, they had the pizzas delivered. Pizzerias in New York City offered to pack the pizzas in individual containers and sent them to the soldiers.

What was the first pizza chain in America?

That’s right—Pizza Hut was the first chain pizza joint in America. The original restaurant was less-than-large, with only twenty-five seats.

What is the most popular pizza diameter in the US?

The most popular size of pizza in the United States is 14 inches in diameter. The average pizza is usually 14 inches in diameter with eight slices.

Who invented pizza?

That did start in Italy. Specifically, baker Raffaele Esposito from Naples is often given credit for making the first such pizza pie. Historians note, however, that street vendors in Naples sold flatbreads with toppings for many years before then.

When did people first start delivering pizza?

With the growing availability of cars and motorcycles, it became possible to deliver freshly cooked food to customers’ doors – and pizza was among the first dishes to be served up. In 1960, Tom and James Monaghan founded ‘Dominik’s’ in Michigan and, after winning a reputation for speedy delivery, took their company – which they renamed ‘Domino’s’ – nationwide.

When was the first ever pizza delivery made?

The first Boston Pizza location was opened in Edmonton, Alberta, in 1964, and operated under the name ‘Boston Pizza & Spaghetti House’, with locations still opening across the nation. Pizza Pizza, and its subsidiary chain Pizza 73 in Western Canada, are among Canada’s largest domestic brands based in Ontario.

What was the first pizza delivery?

  • In the 6th century BC,Persian soldiers serving under Darius the Great baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields.
  • In Ancient Greece,citizens made a flat bread called plakous ( πλακοῦς,gen.
  • An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid (ca.
  • Who was the first company to deliver pizza?

    The moment they came out of the oven, he rushed over with the pizza and hand delivered them to the Queen, completing what was perhaps the first pizza delivery in history. Queen Margherita took one

    Dough made fresh every morning

    didn’t have to think twice, pizza on Friday nights meant Giant Pizza.
    In 2004 Frank and Nancy’s son Arben began running Giant Pizza’s day
    to day operations. In 2009 Arben opened Giant Pizza’s second location

    in Putnam, CT. It is the only pizza restaurant in it’s market with a
    drive-thru pick-up window. It is Arben’s goal to extend his father’s
    passion for food and hard-work while growing Giant Pizza and the
    people that support it into something we can all be proud of. It is his

    mission to continue supporting the community while creating an
    outstanding reputation like his parents did in Danielson. Giant Pizza
    routinely raises money for the Putnam Elementary PTO through its
    Dining for a Cause fundraiser and educational incentives and rewards

    for the Killingly Schools through its GIANT STRIDES program.   
       Giant Pizza is a family oriented company that believes in its people, its community, and its reputation. Arben will continue to start and end every day with his father’s motto.
       “Work hard and take pride in your work. We stand by our food and our employees. If the customer is not happy we will take care of them and make it right.” This is and will always be Feta “Frank” Abdullovski’s motto with Giant Pizza. This is the philosophy that has stuck with the company and is the backbone of Giant Pizza.
         Frank Abdullovski came to the United States in 1962 determined to live the “American Dream”. After years of working in the mills Frank Abdullovski and his brother, Ferik, saw that very opportunity when they bought Giant Pizza, a small 900 square foot take-out pizza shop in Danielson, CT, in 1986.

    Amazon.com: Tonys Fiestada Whole Grain Beef Pizza, 154 Gram – 72 per case.: Grocery & Gourmet Food

    A rating of one out of five stars The majority of those that arrived were broken. On February 11, 2019, a review was conducted in the United States. When the box arrived, many/the majority of the items were broken.

    Reviews with images

    Top reviews from the United States

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    On March 26, 2018, a verified purchase was reviewed in the United States.I had been seeking for them for YEARS; they were served in the cafeteria at my high school, and I recalled them as being soft and foldable, extremely cheddar cheese, and having a completely distinct flavor.I was thrilled to finally find them.Given the volume and cost of the items, I wanted to share as much information as possible with fellow Fiestada devotees as soon as they came.As a result, they arrived a week sooner than scheduled.They were packaged in a large, heavy cardboard box that was coated with thick styrofoam to protect them from the elements.

    There were no cold packs in the package, but the temperature was still rather cool, and they were still solidly frozen when we opened the box to take them out.I was unpleasantly shocked to see that the Fiestadas were packaged in sheets of six that required to be torn apart (similar to plastic toy components that were squeezed together in a single piece), and that they were all packaged loose in a large plastic bag, which I did not appreciate.I had anticipated them to be packaged in groups of six, twelve, and so on, but instead the six Fiestada sheets were stacked together in a single bag.I used my Foodsaver to package them in twos and store them in a large freezer, but be aware that you’ll need to do something with them as soon as they come, and that they’ll begin to thaw very rapidly after the box has been removed from the freezer.

    1. As for the flavor, I’m going to give you my biased opinion because I used to really, really like them back in the 1980s.
    2. I baked them for 20 minutes at 375 degrees F, checking on them every five minutes along the process.
    3. The crusts came out to be a little crunchy, but they were also dry and appeared to be overly thick.
    4. The cheese browned wonderfully, but we’ll definitely top it up with much more cheddar the next time we make it.

    Because there was so little sauce, each mouthful was a little on the dry side.The flavor was average, resembling that of any affordable frozen pizza.The idea for the remaining 70 Fiestadas (LOL) is to top them with a little thin taco sauce, serve them with a side salad, and let them steam for a few minutes after they’ve been baked to soften the crust a little bit longer next time.Anything that can be done to replicate the good old cafeteria system would almost certainly be an improvement.

    1. Overall, despite the expenditure, I’m quite grateful that we were able to locate Fiestadas once more.
    2. As for how I feel when we’re still working on them two years from now, just ask me how I feel today.
    3. On March 23, 2018, a reviewer in the United States verified that the purchase was legitimate.
    4. It’s been 15 years since I last indulged in one of these delicacies.

    Unlike the ones I used to have in school, these are not precisely the same.The recipe has been slightly tweaked.Both the toppings and the sauce had the same flavor.The bread, on the other hand, is different.It has a distinct flavor.These are made out of 51% whole grain flour.

    1. I recall them being white bread when I was in school.
    2. In any case, they are still quite good.
    3. Make certain that you have a freezer in which to store the package.
    4. Its dimensions are 17.5 inches long by 13.25 inches broad and 11.5 inches high.
    5. In a large bag with paper between each layer, they are all packed together in a box to be shipped.
    6. On February 11, 2019, a customer in the United States reviewed the product and verified the purchase.

    When the box arrived, many/the majority of the items were broken.a rating of one out of five stars The majority of those that arrived were broken.On February 11, 2019, a review was conducted in the United States.When the box arrived, many/the majority of the items were broken.The photographs in this review On August 9, 2019, a verified purchase was reviewed in the United States of America.For example, while I was growing up in the 1980s and 1990s, I ate a lot of them for lunch at school – as did my husband, brother, and a lot of our friends at the time.

    1. Seeing these on Amazon reminded me of my childhood favorites, and I knew I had to acquire some and pass them around so everyone could take a little journey down memory lane with me.
    2. To tell you the truth, they did not let me down!
    3. They taste EXACTLY the same way I remember them to be when I was little.
    4. Hence, these are hardly gourmet foods – but they will bring you back to the lunchroom if you so choose.

    When you combine the fragrance of canned corn and milk, you’ve got yourself a time machine, baby.When it came to delivery, I was quite delighted – the pizzas were properly packaged in dry ice and were frozen solid throughout.They also arrived much sooner than the expected delivery date, which was fantastic news.Overall, if you’re seeking for a tiny taste of your youth, I would certainly recommend acquiring them.Definitely worth the purchase, especially if you have any friends or family members with whom you would like to share them.

    The product was reviewed in the United States on November 18, 2020 and was verified to be genuine.It annoys me that there isn’t another choice for ordering a lower amount.72 pizzas is an absurd number.Although these pizzas seem similar to the fiestadas from school, they are not to be confused with the rectangular cubed pepperoni pizzas, which are equally wonderful.These are really wonderful and delicious!The packaging was up to date and in excellent shape.

    1. On April 16, 2021, it was reviewed in the United States, and it was verified as a purchase.
    2. When compared to education, it’s around 85 to 90 percent better.
    3. Simply different, but yet excellent enough to warrant purchasing it.

    Cooking them at a lower temperature will result in them being more floppy, similar to how they were served in school.4.0 stars out of 5 for this product Just go ahead and grab them because you know you want them.On April 16, 2021, a review will be conducted in the United States.

    • When compared to education, it’s around 85 to 90 percent better.
    • Simply different, but yet excellent enough to warrant purchasing it.
    • Cooking them at a lower temperature will result in them being more floppy, similar to how they were served in school.
    • The photographs in this review Verified Purchase on January 6, 2022 in the United States of America We were ecstatic to receive them and enjoy them for the first time in more than two decades, but we were left feeling let down.
    • These are far worse than the ones we got in school.

    The topping has a flavor that is fairly comparable to the original recipe, but the crust absolutely overpowers the flavor and destroys the dish.It’s very terrible.We’ve considered grinding down or chopping down the crust in order to make it less noticeable, in the hopes that it would be less distracting.However, it appears to be an excessive amount of work.Now I have a plethora of these pizzas lying in my freezer, and I have practically no desire to eat any of them!

    See also:  How To Make Pizza Without A Pizza Stone?

    I’ve tried everything to encourage the kids to eat them, but they’re not interested.verified purchaseReviewed in the United States on February 24, 2019Verified Purchase I felt the price was excessive, but I’d been craving those pizzas since I was a youngster, and I’d been putting off ordering them for decades.The crust didn’t appear to be anything close to being the same.

    When I read it, it seemed more like corn meal.I haven’t worked out how I’m going to make the pizzas yet because the box I received had around a dozen of them torn up into little bits.There were even better versions of Tony’s taco pizza that used to be available at grocery shops.

    Amazon.com: Funko Five Nights at Freddys Pizza Simulator Glow-in-The-Dark Articulated Action Figures (Set of 5): Toys & Games

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    Verified Purchase on January 19, 2021 in the United States of America What the hell is going on, Funky?Despite the fact that these small plastic ″posable″ figures are attractive to look at, my son is once again dissatisfied with them because their limbs fall off when they are simply playing with them, and their ears break off after a short fall on a carpeted floor, and this has happened to ALL of them.Tails come off as well.It appears to be the ″glow in the dark″ form of the product that causes this problem.His second complete set of them has been destroyed, and the same thing occurred to the previous set.Disappointed!

    Verified PurchaseReviewed in the United States on May 13, 2020Verified Purchase This is a terrible thing to promote, and you should be ashamed of yourself!My 10-year-old grandson worked hard, saved his money, and decided to purchase this bundle with his earnings.In anticipation of receiving the present, he was saddened to see that the first two (of of five) items he opened had broken limbs.They were well-packaged, but when he pulled them out of the box, he discovered that three out of five action figures had limbs that shattered on the first movement!

    1. We utilized super glue to save what we could, but this means there is no mobility.
    2. Yes, they are visible in the dark, but that is just half of the advertisement.
    3. All I can say is that it was a difficult lesson to learn.

    Personally, I thought they were pricey, but it was his decision to purchase them.Do not spend your money, once again!It was reviewed in the United States on November 28, 2020 and it was verified.This set, as well as another that looks to have originated in China, were purchased by me.

    1. Unfortunately, these are also susceptible to breakage.
    2. It was necessary to glue components back onto the bear.
    3. On September 13, 2020, a review was published in the United States, confirming that the purchase was legitimate.
    4. My kid like it, especially because of the way it glows in the dark.

    The document will be reviewed in the United States on September 13, 2020.Purchase that has been verified On January 31, 2022, a review will be conducted in the United States.Purchase that has been verified One of them has already had his tail broken off.My kid, on the other hand, adores them.The review will take place in the United States on June 7, 2020.Purchase that has been verified The packaging was fine, however the ease with which they broke for the price was quite disappointing.

    1. It was said that the ones we purchased and received would glow in the dark, however this was not the case.
    2. Because it was his birthday present, he was really disappointed.
    3. Even with super glue, the rubbish could not be kept together.
    4. The quality is quite low.
    5. Verified Purchase on January 8, 2020 in the United States of America This was a Christmas present for my grandson, who is seven years old.
    6. Initially, I was quite enthusiastic about the product.

    As soon as we pulled them out of their boxes, one of my grandson’s ears snapped off when he dropped one of them.As a result, I’m really dissatisfied with the product itself.

    Top reviews from other countries

    5.0 stars out of 5 for this product Product is in accordance with the description On February 25, 2022, a review was conducted in Italy. Purchase that has been verified Delivery was not excessively lengthy, and the product was as described.

    Waring WPO750 Double Deck Countertop Pizza Oven with Two Independent Chambers – 240V

    Replace the heading here2.8 stars based on 10 customer reviews

    Oven pizza cooks pizzas from the top to the bottom with considerable heat.

    Customer Reviews

    This review was useful to 4 out of 4 people.Before executing it for the first time, make sure you read and understand the instructions.This device is fantastic.I turned the oven temperature up to 800 degrees and baked a pizza in approximately 3 minutes total.The oven is so silent that I nearly forgot it was even on at the time.When you consider how hot it gets, it produces very little heat.

    I’ve been researching electric pizza ovens for the past two years, and I’m delighted we chose this particular model.

    This review was helpful to 1 out of 1 people.For my convenience store pizzas, I purchased this oven, and it performs admirably in that capacity.It is necessary to turn the 16-inch pizzas halfway through the cooking process in order for them to cook evenly.When it comes to 12 inch pizzas, it performs better.If the temperature is set higher than 500 degrees, it produces a significant amount of heat.Even though it heats up slowly, I guessed it was probably built that way in order to prevent the ceramic deck from heating up too soon and breaking.

    Overall, this oven represents excellent value for money.

    This review was helpful to 1 out of 1 people.The oven has been delivered to our location and looks to be in good working order.To date, we have been happy with the Waring Oven’s performance.The transportation business, on the other hand, did not contact us prior to arrival as we had requested in the order.Considering that we only had two young ladies working in our kitchen at the time, it was imperative that we hustle to find someone who could physically handle this thing and get it inside the building.Please report this complaint to the trucking firm, as I believe it should be addressed.

    Paris Hill Country Club is in need of a treasurer.

    This review was helpful to 1 out of 1 people.I purchased this pizza oven about a week ago, and when I try to make pizza with it, it is completely impossible to cook the dough.It took a long time to heat up this Owen, and then even longer when I put the pizza in.It burns from the button, but the top does not fry at all.Thank you for taking the time to write this review!We apologize for the inconvenience that this pizza oven has caused.

    A Customer Solutions Representative will call you as soon as possible to assist you in resolving the problem.

    This oven has left me extremely dissatisfied; when we use raw pizza dough and place it on the screen, the bottom cooks perfectly but the top does not brown; when turned to the highest setting, the oven only reaches 650 degrees Fahrenheit, despite the fact that the description states it will reach 800; we have been customers for six years and have purchased all of our equipment from you; we have been satisfied with it and recommend you to other owners; please advise on my options to rectify this situation.We sincerely apologize if this Waring WPO750 Double Deck Countertop Pizza Oven with Two Independent Chambers – 240V did not meet your expectations in any way.A Customer Solutions Representative will get in touch with you as soon as possible!

    On May 18, 2020, I made my order for this Waring Pizza Oven, which will be used in my business.My package was delivered by common carrier with a liftgate on June 2nd, 2020.I observed that both the top and bottom pizza stones were cracked the other day and decided to investigate.In addition, the lower oven does not heat properly, and the light inside has already burned out completely.This is outrageous, especially considering the price I paid for my new pizza oven!We appreciate you taking the time to write a review.

    Our sincere apologies for the difficulties you’ve had with this Waring WPO750 Double Deck Countertop Pizza Oven with Two Independent Chambers – 240V.Our Customer Solutions team will keep in touch with you as the situation develops.

    Unfortunately, this oven did not perform as expected for our family.We couldn’t cook two pizzas in a succession since the temperature dropped considerably every time we opened the door, and even if we could, the second pizza would be done in 10 minutes at 600 degrees, much alone the following ones.We needed to go back to work as quickly as possible.Thank you for taking the time to provide feedback!We apologize for the inconvenience caused by the malfunctioning of your Waring WPO750 Double Deck Countertop Pizza Oven with Two Independent Chambers – 240V.Action has been made to correct the situation.

    Contact our Customer Solutions team if you have any issues or need assistance.

    I am satisfied with my buy. I am a pizza cook, and using this oven to make the Roman pinsa is a possibility for me. Everything about it is excellent for what I wanted it for.

    This pizza oven has lately taken the place of our toaster oven in our kitchen. So far, everything is running smoothly. It has two separate chambers where you may run two different temperatures.

    This pizza oven is not something I would suggest to anyone.We just bought it this summer, and the timers stopped functioning right away.It also warms unevenly, so you have to move the product around in the oven to cook the other half of the meal.One chamber cooks more slowly than the other, and the lights go off practically as soon as they are turned on.Thank you very much for taking the time to write this review, Tiffany!We sincerely apologize if this Waring WPO750 Double Deck Countertop Pizza Oven with Two Independent Chambers – 240V did not meet your expectations in any way.

    A Customer Solutions Representative will get in touch with you as soon as possible!

    The First Pizza Delivery

    Pizza was first delivered in 1889, according to Queen Margherita of Savoy, who is credited with initiating the tradition.After returning from her trip to Naples, the queen became unwell and sought real Italian food from the region to revive her.It was not expected of royalty at that time to go out and find the greatest meals, which meant that the food had to be provided to them.A pizza topped with mozzarella, basil, and tomatoes, in celebration of the Italian flag’s colors, was sent to the queen by Chef Raffaele Esposito, who answered the phone and delivered a bespoke dish to the queen.Margherita pizza was named after Queen Margherita after she like it so much.This is still the case today!

    When Did Pizza Delivery Start in the US? 

    1. Despite the fact that Queen Margherita was the first to have a pizza delivered to her home, it took considerably longer for the habit to spread to the rest of the population.
    2. The pizza that American troops had enjoyed while serving overseas became popular after World War II, and as pizzerias increased in popularity, they began offering ″take out″ choices, allowing customers to take their pies with them back to their respective homes.
    3. More populous places, such as New York City and Los Angeles, began offering pizza delivery services to clients in their near vicinity, and they produced the ideal-sized pizza boxes to transport their pies securely.

    It wasn’t until the 1960s that pizza delivery in the United States truly began to gain popularity.Due to the increasing availability of private automobiles in American households, restaurant owners began training their staff to serve as delivery drivers, promising that meals would be delivered in 30 minutes or less, a practice that continues today.Pizza delivery had its greatest growth during the late 1990s and early 2000s, when ubiquitous internet connection made it simpler than ever to have hot, flavorful Italian food delivered right to your door.Salerno’s takes great satisfaction in providing Chicagoland clients with wonderful meal delivery on a daily basis, and we hope you enjoy your experience with us!

    Order Pizza Delivery From Salerno’s!

    1. Our selection is jam-packed with everything you could possibly desire from a pizza delivery service, as well as other Italian classics like as spaghetti, entrees, and desserts!
    2. Because our in-house delivery staff is familiar with the neighborhoods of Chicago, Oak Park, Lyons and Bolingbrook like the back of their hands, you can expect us to show up at your door with a grin on our faces.
    3. Remember to take advantage of our pizza and pasta offers while you can!

    What is the History of Pizza Delivery?

    1. Skip to the main content Where does pizza delivery come from and what is its history?
    2. Most of us have faced the prospect of dinnertime and thought something along the lines of ″let’s simply order a pizza.″ That there was a point throughout history when this popular delivery option was simply not accessible is one of the most startling aspects of the concept of ordering a pizza.
    3. Pizza delivery was one of the earliest forms of food to be delivered, and it has a long and illustrious history in the food delivery industry.

    1889 was the year when the first shipment was made.In fact, Queen Margerita of Savoy had a pizza delivered to her when she grew ill from eating local food while traveling outside of the region.Upon her request for traditional Italian cuisine, they brought a real Margerita pizza to her, which has since been a regular meal that the queen has had served to her residence.A pizza delivery service would eventually be available to the ordinary class of people.After World War II, it took until 1945 for the process to be completed.

    1. Many pizzerias in New York City began offering take-home pizza as a popular alternative for their customers.
    2. As more businesses continue to grow and expand their services, the pick up in store option will also continue to develop and grow in popularity.
    3. The contemporary quality of delivery really began in the 1960s, when people were in desperate need.
    4. As private automobiles grew increasingly prevalent in American culture, the number of private delivery drivers increased dramatically.
    5. In the 1960s, customers had the option of receiving a delivery in 30 minutes or less, a rule that is still in effect for many of the leading pizza delivery services today.

    By 1997, it was feasible to place online pizza orders, and by 2009, it was possible to place orders using mobile applications, allowing for even faster and more convenient delivery choices to be provided.Today, there are even more intriguing possibilities for pizza delivery than there were previously.Our world is becoming more accessible than ever before, thanks to innovations such as computer-controlled roving delivery vans and the possibility of drone deliveries in the future.If you’d like to have your purchase delivered today, please contact us or place your order online.sttm admin2019-10-10T16:28:22+00:00 a link to the page’s load

    Retracing the History and Tradition of Pizza Delivery – Pizz’a Chicago-San Jose & Palo Alto, San Jose, CA

    1. Pizza has been around for thousands of years and is still popular today.
    2. It is believed that the Romans ate a type of pizza that was simply a wheat bun, which over a period of several hundred years developed into the cheesy, saucy dish that we all know and love.
    3. A few businesses took advantage of the pizza’s easy form and serving manner, and soon after, they were delivering pizza to satisfied and hungry consumers.

    The Margherita is a traditional Italian dish.It is possible that the first modern pizza was also the first pizza to be delivered.During the visit of Queen Margherita and King Umberto to the city of Naples in 1889, a famous pizza cook by the name of Raffaele Esposito personally brought his innovative form of pizza to the royal couple.Known as the Pizza Margherita after the Italian town where it was created, it was decorated with the patriotic colors of red tomatoes, white mozzarella, and green basil.The Pizza of the Postwar Era American soldiers serving in World War II found pizza and brought it back to the United States, where it was quickly adopted by locals who created pizzerias and restaurants around the country.

    1. Small pizza businesses began delivering pizza in the 1950s, with the growth of automobile culture, but the concept did not catch on until a few large corporations chose to make it the emphasis of their operations in the 1960s.
    2. Domino’s Pizza Delivery Since then, pizza delivery has become a common feature of everyday life in both the United States and throughout the world.
    3. New technology have been developed by the pizza delivery industry to ensure that delivery pizzas remain fresh.
    4. On lengthier deliveries, the first heated bags assisted in keeping the pizza hat and crust fresh.
    5. The widespread usage of the internet thus resulted in the availability of the option of placing an order online.

    Pizza was even transported to the astronauts of the International Space Station in July 2000, according to NASA.Those looking for something more than history could contact Pizza Chicago at (408) 329-7681 and place an order for the greatest deep dish, Chicago style pizza in the San Francisco Bay region.For additional information about our menu and happy hour specials, please see our website.

    In 1974, Someone Ordered a Pizza With a Computer for the First Time

    1. While computers can accomplish a plethora of miracles, one of the most common chores we assign them is to purchase food.
    2. This is a duty that used to take up the majority of a person’s time and is now performed by a computer.
    3. With the wonder of contemporary technology, online ordering has become a way of life, a service that can be relied on even when a storm is on the horizon.

    However, this was not always the case.Witness a watershed event in the history of digital delivery: the first pizza ever ordered using a computer.The following is written by Open Culture: Technologists were already designing the world we live in by the late 1960s, when the Cold War ended.A wired world, according to Arthur C.Clarke, where knowledge and communication will be rapid and borderless, was what he envisioned as he looked into the future.

    1. Marshall McLuhan recognized the beginnings of what we now refer to as ″social media″ in his writings.
    2. Others projected that email and ecommerce will be on the horizon in the not-too-distant future.
    3. It should therefore come as no surprise that, only a few years later, the Artificial Language Laboratory at Michigan State University found a means for computers to begin doing certain routine transactions — such as placing an order for pizza — using natural language.
    4. John Eulenberg’s new-fangled technology was used by Donald Sherman in 1974 to contact a pizzeria.
    5. Sherman’s speech was hampered by a neurological illness known as Moebius Syndrome, and he utilized the device to order a pizza.

    The first call was placed to Domino’s, who promptly disconnected the line.They were clearly preoccupied with growing into a giant.The call was answered by a humanitarian pizzeria — Mr.Mike’s – and the rest, as they say, is history.All of this plays out above, and we hope that Mr.

    1. Mike’s is still in business after all these years….
    2. Everything has been pure pizza bliss since then, as you might imagine.
    3. Domino’s online sales reached a record high of $1 billion in June of last year.
    4. Consumers have embraced e-commerce in waves, according to Time magazine.
    1. By now, the days when buying online seemed like a unique experience are a distant memory for most people.
    2. We’re all very accustomed to purchasing books, DVDs, toys, footwear, gadgets, and most other items from the comfort of our own homes.
    3. It would be difficult and weirdly inefficient for us to call up and purchase an airplane ticket today.
    4. Despite this, it has taken a long time for a large segment of the population to accept the concept of purchasing restaurant meals for delivery or takeout online.
    5. On the one hand, it appears as though such directives would be an excellent fit for the digital environment.
    6. Customers no longer have to wait on hold on the phone, and they can examine menus and orders on displays using their own eyes to double-check for faults.
    See also:  How Many Calories In Red Baron Pizza?

    Restaurants, on the other hand, needed to develop systems that would allow them to handle internet orders smoothly, effectively, and swiftly.Initially, it appeared as if people were wary about purchasing online, believing that it was easier and faster to simply phone in.However, this has since changed.Of course, not everyone has embraced the modern age of the internet.We may even be able to simply think of the doughnuts or mac and cheese we desire and have restaurants send it all to us right away in the future, as is already the case.However, in 1974, this appeared to be just as absurd as having a computer buy your pizza for you.

    More information may be found at Smithsonian.com: Introducing Charles Babbage’s Difference Machine No.2: When Computers Become Intelligent Videos to Watch That We Found Interesting

    Pizza Hut Inc

    1. 9111 East Douglas Boulevard Wichita, Kansas 67027, United States of America (316) 681-9000 Contact us via fax at (316) 681-9869.
    2. PepsiCo, Inc.
    3. is a wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo, Inc.

    The company was founded in 1959.140,000 people work for the company.Sales totaled $5.1 billion (1996) SIC codes: 5812 eating establishments; 6794 patent owners and lessees Pizza Hut Inc.is the largest pizza restaurant corporation in the world, both in terms of the number of locations it operates and the percentage of the global pizza market share it controls.The firm, which is a part of PepsiCo, Inc., is in charge of more than 11,000 pizza restaurants and delivery locations in 90 countries throughout the world.

    1. In October 1997, the firm anticipated becoming a subsidiary of Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc., which had been created as a result of the spin-off of PepsiCo’s restaurant operations.

    Early History

    1. The first Pizza Hut restaurant opened its doors in Wichita, Kansas, in 1958, founded by brothers Dan and Frank Carney.
    2. Their mother loaned them $600 to establish their pizza shop, which they co-owned with John Bender.
    3. When a buddy recommended creating a pizza parlor, they felt that the concept had potential and borrowed the money from their mother to get started.

    The Carneys and Bender rented a tiny facility at 503 South Bluff in downtown Wichita and purchased secondhand equipment to cook pizzas before launching the world’s first Pizza Hut restaurant.On opening night, they handed out pizza to generate interest among the local population.The next year, in 1959, Pizza Hut was officially established in Kansas, and Dick Hassur built the company’s first franchise location in Topeka, Kansas.When Pizza Hut began to expand in the early 1960s, it did so largely as a result of strong marketing of the pizza restaurant concept.In 1962, the Carney brothers purchased Bender’s remaining shareholding in the corporation, and Robert Chisholm joined the company as treasurer as a result.

    1. In 1966, when the number of Pizza Hut franchise units had increased to 145, a home office was formed in Wichita, Kansas, to oversee the operations of the various locations.
    2. The first Pizza Hut franchise in Canada opened its doors two years later, in 1989.
    3. As a result, the International Pizza Hut Franchise Holders Association was established shortly after (IPHFHA).
    4. It hoped to acquire 40 percent of the firm’s franchise operations, or 120 shops, and incorporate them into the existing six Pizza Hut locations that were controlled entirely by the corporation.
    5. The purchases, on the other hand, caused havoc inside the organization.

    After the prior franchise owners’ accounting systems were combined into one operating system, it took an additional eight months to finish the process.In the meanwhile, sales have stagnated and profitability have plummeted.

    Turmoil Brings New Structure in Early 1970s

    1. The company’s habit of relying on statistics from its annual report to influence its business strategy was deemed inadequate by Frank Carney in the early 1970s.
    2. A more detailed, long-term business plan was thus required.
    3. When Pizza Hut went public, it marked the beginning of an era in which the company saw extraordinary growth.

    ″We were on the verge of losing control of the operations,″ Carney said in 1972.Then we realized that we needed to learn how to prepare ahead of time.″ In 1972, Pizza Hut released its business plan, which had been developed after extensive consultation and boardroom debate.Carney would subsequently note that the process of establishing a management structure played a significant role in convincing PepsiCo, Inc.that the pizza restaurant was a good fit for their acquisition.The initial aim of the business strategy was to increase sales and earnings for the company as a whole.

    1. The second aim was to continue to develop a strong financial foundation for the firm in order to offer appropriate finance for future expansion.
    2. In addition, the plan aimed for the addition of new restaurants to the network in emerging and developing market areas.
    3. Pizza Hut launched its first locations in Munich, Germany, and Sydney, Australia, in 1970.
    4. The chain’s 500th location, located in Nashville, Tennessee, opened the following year.
    5. Additional purchases that year included an 80 percent share in Ready Italy, a frozen crust manufacturer, and a joint venture, Sunflower Food Processors, founded with Sunflower Beef, Inc.

    to produce sunflower-based products.The following year, sandwiches were added to the standard ″Thin ″n Crispy″ pizza option on the menus of all participating establishments.In 1971, Pizza Hut surpassed Domino’s Pizza as the world’s largest pizza chain in terms of revenue and the number of shops it operated—at the time, slightly more than 1,000 in total.Approximately a year later, the company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange.Pizza Hut also achieved, for the first time, a sales week in excess of one million dollars in the United States market.

    1. Pizza Hut made its long-awaited public offering of 410,000 shares of common stock towards the end of 1972, a move that was much anticipated at the time.
    2. Taco Kid, Next Door, and the Flaming Steer are three restaurant divisions that the firm acquired as part of its expansion.
    3. Apart from that, Pizza Hut purchased franchise services, an organization that supplies restaurants, and J & G Food Company, an organization that distributes food and supplies.
    4. In addition, a second distribution center in Peoria, Illinois, was opened by the corporation.
    1. In 1973, Pizza Hut grew even further by establishing locations in Japan and the United Kingdom.
    2. Three years later, the company had more than 100 restaurants outside of the United States, as well as a franchise network with more than two thousand units.
    3. In Independence, Missouri, the firm celebrated the opening of its 2,000th restaurant.
    4. It also set the 35 by 65 meter red-roof Pizza Hut restaurant structure as the standard size for all new Pizza Hut restaurants.
    5. According to the new construction standard, free-standing structures were to be constructed in an unique one-story brick form.
    6. The locations accommodated anything from 60 to 120 individuals.

    At this period, advertising played an increasingly important role at Pizza Hut, helping to raise the company’s public reputation and increase its sales.Campaigns were carried out on a national and local level in the United States market, respectively.From 1972 to 1974, the amount spent on local advertising climbed by $942,000, reaching $3.17 million in 1974.

    PepsiCo Buys Out Company in 1977

    1. As a result of the merger with PepsiCo in 1977, Pizza Hut became a branch of the worldwide soft drink and food company.
    2. Sales reached $436 million in that year, and a new headquarters office in Wichita worth $10 million was dedicated to the company.
    3. Pizza Hut was clearly a business opportunity for PepsiCo.

    People continued to dine outside their homes, particularly as the value of convenience and price competitiveness in the fast food business grew in prominence.There were many new competitors for Pizza Hut in the 1980s, all vying for its number one position in the pizza restaurant industry, which was then valued at more than $15 billion dollars in sales yearly in the United States alone.While the company’s primary competitors in the 1970s were regional chains such as the Dallas-based Pizza Inn, the Denver-based Shakey’s, and the Phoenix-based Village Inn and Straw Hat, fierce competition in the 1980s resulted in the entry of new players into the quick-service pizza category, including Little Caesar’s, Domino’s Pizza International, and Pizza Express.In an effort to increase its popularity, Pizza Hut released ″Pan Pizza″ in 1980 over its entire distribution network.The product, which had a thicker crust and was baked in deep pans, quickly gained popularity.

    1. Because of the marketing resources supplied by PepsiCo, the introduction of new products to the Pizza Hut menu has been a rousing success.
    2. Examples include the introduction of ″Personal Pan Pizza″ by Pizza Hut in 1983, which provided customers with a five-minute assurance that their single-serving pizzas would be delivered fast and steaming hot.
    3. The goal was to turn a quick and economical pizza into the perfect midday meal for busy people.
    4. Another innovation to the chain’s menu would be the introduction of ″Hand-Tossed Traditional Pizza,″ which would debut in 1988.
    See also:  Who Has Pretzel Crust Pizza?

    Strong Growth in Late 1980s and Early 1990s

    1. Steven Reinemund was named president and chief executive officer of Pizza Hut in 1984.
    2. He has been with the company since since.
    3. He was in charge of the company at a period of unparalleled expansion.

    It was in Dallas, Texas, that Pizza Hut established its 5,000th franchise unit, and the company launched its popular home delivery service.It had risen to nearly 25 percent of the company’s overall sales by the late 1990s, and it was the fastest-growing division.The first Pizza Hut restaurant in Moscow opened its doors in 1990.The ″Moskva,″ a pie covered with sardines, tuna, mackerel, salmon, and onion, became a popular option among Russians and established a staple at the Moscow Pizza Hut restaurant.The Moscow branch soon established itself as the highest-volume unit in the company’s global network of restaurants.

    1. Restaurants in France, Hong Kong, Finland, and the United Kingdom came in second and third, respectively, in terms of total volume served.
    2. Other popular toppings for pizzas in nations other than the United States were sauerkraut and onion, spinach, ham, and onion, and pepperoni and mushroom.
    3. Asians and Australians seemed to particularly appreciate different curry pizzas in Hong Kong, with corned beef and Canadian bacon being popular choices.
    4. McDonald’s, the world’s largest hamburger fast food business, increased competition in the United States in 1991 when it introduced ″McPizza″ to its menu in some test locations and even offered consumers the option of ordering it to be delivered to their homes.
    5. Despite all of this effort, as well as the economic downturn that occurred in the early 1990s, Pizza Hut continued to make money.

    As a result of increased health consciousness and the popularity of vegetarian lifestyles, many individuals began to see pizza as a nutritional alternative to greasy fast food fare in 1991, resulting in a ten percent increase in worldwide company sales to $5.3 billion.For example, Pizza Hut Delivery generated $1.2 billion in sales on its own in 2011, and overall Pizza Hut sales, when combined with those of PepsiCo subsidiaries Taco Bell and KFC (formerly Kentucky Fried Chicken), resulted in more than $21 billion in sales for the parent company on the restaurant and fast food side in 2011.In the early 1990s, Pizza Hut was concerned with making its restaurants more easily accessible to the public.For the convenience of consumers, drive-through units were installed, and the development of Pizza Hut Express units was underway.The Express business got its start in shopping malls, where it served clients with rapid meals at a reasonable price, made feasible by lower operational costs than other restaurants.

    1. Since then, Pizza Hut has placed Express units in a variety of locations, including school cafeterias, sports arenas, business buildings, and major airports.
    2. As a result, atypical sites were identified as the fastest-growing area of a company’s activities throughout the first six years of the 1990s.
    3. PepsiCo’s business support of Pizza Hut includes money for the Book It!
    4. National Reading Incentive Program, which aimed to increase literacy rates among young people by encouraging them to read more.
    1. The prize for improved reading skills was a free pizza voucher redeemable at any Pizza Hut location.
    2. In 1992, the Book It!
    3. initiative reached more than 17 million kids in North America alone, and Pizza Hut received letters of support from President George H.W.
    4. Bush and Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander in support of the program that year.
    5. The end of the Cold War provided an opportunity for PepsiCo to capitalize on global change by growing Pizza Hut into new and emerging regions.
    6. In 1991, PepsiCo operated restaurant locations in 80 countries across the world.

    Wayne Calloway, chairman of PepsiCo, expressed his desire to see the company’s success continue as the twenty-first century approached.″The big concern for worldwide restaurant expansion is, ‘How quickly can we get there?’″ he stated.″A gradually increasing interest in eating out and a persistent preference for convenience meals are generating an atmosphere of enthusiasm for our restaurants,″ says the company.By 1997, Pizza Hut restaurants had opened in 90 different countries.

    Declining Profits in Mid-1990s

    1. A number of developments occurred in 1994, resulting in the company’s first fall in operational earnings in 15 years.
    2. The pizza industry was no longer increasing, fast food competitors were cutting costs, and corporate resources were being diverted to the development of additional locations.
    3. Sales at restaurants that had been open at least one year fell by six percent in 1994, amounting to a 21 percent reduction in earnings (to $295 million) for PepsiCo’s restaurant segment in the year.

    Roger A.Enrico, formerly of PepsiCo’s beverage and snack food businesses, was appointed president of the company’s restaurant segment in 1994 in an effort to revers the company’s troubling trend.As a starting point, he aggressively promoted a new product: filled crust pizza, which is defined as pizza that has a thin ring of mozzarella folded into the edge of the dough on one side.A large advertising effort was launched to promote the new product, including television commercials in which celebrities were shown eating the crust of their pizza first, as well as print advertisements.One encouraging sign was that the company’s market share improved from 25.6 to 27 percent in 1995, revenues jumped 16 percent to $5.2 billion, and operating income increased to $414 million, an increase of 40% from the previous year.

    1. A significant new product and two or three line expansions were planned for each year of 1996 at Pizza Hut, according to the company’s strategic strategy.
    2. This strategy was carried out the following year, when Totally New Pizzas were introduced, which had 67 percent more toppings than prior pizzas and a thicker sauce than earlier versions.
    3. The corporation set aside $50 million for the project, with a portion of the funds going toward the installation of new or better ovens.
    4. The Pizza Hut franchise contributed for 17 percent of PepsiCo’s overall sales and 13 percent of the company’s operational profits in 1996.
    5. Capital investment had a negative impact on PepsiCo’s other operations, and these profits were insufficient to compensate for this.

    While the parent company’s return on assets was much higher in its beverage and snack food divisions than in its restaurant division, the parent company’s return on assets was significantly lower in its restaurant division.Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and KFC were among the restaurants that PepsiCo merged in the late 1990s to become the company that we know today.All activities were now handled by a single senior manager, and the majority of back-office functions, such as payroll, data processing, and accounts payable, were consolidated under one department.In January 1997, the firm announced plans to spin off its restaurant sector, resulting in the formation of Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc., a publicly listed corporation that would operate independently.The official proposal, which was authorized by the PepsiCo board of directors in August 1997, provided that each shareholder of PepsiCo would receive one share of Tricon stock for every 10 shares of PepsiCo stock held by the shareholder.

    1. Tricon was also obligated to make a one-time payout of $4.5 billion at the time of the spinoff, according to the agreement.
    2. It is anticipated that the spinoff will take place on October 6, 1997, if permitted by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
    3. ″Our aim in taking these actions is to substantially sharpen PepsiCo’s focus,″ Enrico, who had ascended to the post of PepsiCo CEO, justified the decision.
    4. With incredible financial strength and a very promising future, our restaurant industry is well-positioned.
    1. Nonetheless, given the fundamentally different dynamics of restaurant operations and packaged products operations, we feel that having two completely independent management teams and corporate structures will benefit all of our companies.

    Further Reading

    1. Business Week published an article by Stephanie Anderson Forest titled ″How Enrico Put the Spice Back in Pizza Hut″ on March 11, 1996, on page 72.
    2. David Gumpert’s How to Create a Successful Business Plan was published by Inc.
    3. Publishing in 1990.

    Gumpert, David, and Gumpert, David The Pizza Hut Story, published by Pizza Hut in Wichita, Kansas, in 1989.Howard Rudnitsky’s ″Leaner Cuisine″ is available online.Forbes magazine published an article on March 27, 1995, p.43-44.Patricia Sellers wrote ″Why Pepsi Needs to Become More Like Coca-Cola,″ which appeared in Fortune magazine on March 3, 1997, pages 26-27.

    1. The following is an update by Susan Windisch Brown: —Etan Vlessing

    Who Invented Pizza First? 

    1. Despite the fact that topped flatbreads were consumed in ancient Egypt and Rome, it is the Italians who are credited with being the first to develop pizza.
    2. Locals were obliged to discover quick and cheap methods to provide for their family throughout the 1700s and 1800s when Naples was a thriving coastal city, particularly along the beach, because of overpopulation and a predominantly outdoor lifestyle.
    3. Because of the few ingredients and the portability of pizza, it quickly became a popular dish, but it was seen as a street snack for the poor and inappropriate for the upper classes.

    They had no idea how this seemingly basic innovation would grow into a worldwide phenomenon, and they were wrong.

    Where Was Pizza Invented? 

    1. It is true that pizza originated in Italy, but it was not until the arrival of Neapolitans in the United States that this cheesy food began to gain widespread popularity.
    2. Italians began delivering their pies to customers in the United States in the 1940s, and Americans were immediately drawn to the distinctive flavors.
    3. Pizzerias began to appear in major cities such as Boston, Chicago, and St.

    Louis, however the first confirmed pizza parlour was built in New York City in 1905, according to historical records.After Globe War II, the world began to yearn for all-things Americana, pushing pizza into the stratosphere.Chefs all over the globe began experimenting with this centuries-old masterpiece, reinventing it with regional flavors and ingredients, such as Sicilian-style pizza, to make it fresh and exciting again.Once considered an improper supper, pizza became an immediate sensation, spawning an avalanche of franchises and countless variations on the traditional dish to satiate desires.They originally opened its doors in 1966, and they’ve been serving up delicious pizza to the people of Chicago ever since!

    Who Invented Pizza and Why: Fun Facts  

    • When King Umberto I and Queen Margherita visited Naples in 1889, they were treated to the world’s first piece of pizza. The queen preferred her pizza with mozzarella, tomatoes, and basil, and this famous combination has been known as the Margherita pizza ever since. This meal is also known as the ″first pizza delivery″ because it was the first to arrive!
    • In spite of the fact that it is uncertain who coined the term ″pizza,″ the earliest documented use is attributed to Gaeta, Italy, in 997 AD.
    • The first documented Internet purchase occurred in 1994 when a pizza was bought online, marking the beginning of the modern era of online shopping. Americans consume 350 pieces of pizza per second, according to the latest statistics.

    Grab a Slice From Salerno’s Pizza Today!

    Now that you know who invented pizza, try our unique take on this traditional Italian dish. Check out our menu to discover a pie that will satisfy your tastes, and don’t forget to ask about our catering services for larger gatherings!

    If You Love Pizza, This Woman Is A National Hero

    1. The ideal thermal pizza delivery bag was designed by Ingrid Kosar many years ago, and her little firm continues to manufacture them by hand today.
    2. Every pizza enthusiast would agree that when pizza is served cold, it just does not taste as nice.
    3. To be sure, if there are leftover slices, you’ll reach for a cold slice from the refrigerator when you wake up hungry in the middle of the night.

    But only after you’ve had the particular pleasure of savoring several slices while they’re still boiling hot, of course.Your pizza delivery service may thank Ingrid Kosar for providing you with a deliciously hot meal on the go.Her thermal pizza delivery bag, which has been used to keep pizzas warm over the past 30 years, was invented, as we recently learnt from an outstanding story on The Distance website.Her major source of inspiration was her personal displeasure with receiving cold pizza on a consistent basis.The Thermal Bags by Ingrid website is seen in this screenshot.

    1. The full post is certainly worth reading, but here are a few of the most important points we took up from it:

    Pizza Box Transit Before Ingrid Was Really Sketchy

    • In the early 1980s, pizzerias depended heavily on corrugated cardboard pizza boxes to keep their pizzas warm while they were being transported. If you’re reading that line with a shiver down your spine, you’re not alone—but things only get worse. Other ways that pizzerias explored in the dark days before Ingrid’s bags included: wrapping boxes in blankets
    • building a metal heater box with shelves and heating it with a lighted Sterno can
    • and putting a lit Sterno can inside a pizza box. If you had to brake at all, it would be quite dangerous

    Domino’s Pizza Standardized the Modern Pizza Box

    Even though you’re probably used to receiving your pizza in a corrugated cardboard delivery box, this was a significant step forward at one point. In the olden days, pizzas were delivered on those large cardboard cake circles that were put into a paper bag.

    Pizza Presents Unique Challenges To Keep Warm

    1. It is important to have a crispy crust, but it is also important to have hot toppings.
    2. Those toppings include frequently wet items such as sausage, tomatoes, and various veggies, among other things.
    3. To work with the cardboard boxes, Kosar designed insulated bags made of permeable nylon that were supposed to be used in conjunction with them.

    Because they are so permeable, the boxes held heat while releasing steam, while the bags, on the other hand, allowed steam to escape while retaining warmth.Genius.

    Thermal Bags by Ingrid Has An Impressive Client List

    • The wonderful thing about Kosar’s company is that it is eager to collaborate with anyone, no matter how large or little their project is. Independent pizzerias, as well as large national chains, rely on her products. Domino’s Pizza, the United States Army and Air Force, NASA, Papa John’s, and the White House are just a few of her many clientele.
    1. If you enjoy pizza, the complete tale of Ingrid Kosar’s business will be an interesting read if you enjoy business stories.
    2. We admire her for seeing a problem, working to resolve it, and, in the process, improving the lives of millions of others.
    3. That is a source of inspiration not only for pizza enthusiasts, but for everyone.

    It serves as an excellent reminder that while anybody may criticize, solving problems almost always takes some kind of hands-on involvement.

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